[1.] De civitate Dei (City of God); Latin text in CCSL 47-48; repr. in BA 33-37, with much helpful annotation; also in CSEL 40; translated by M. Dods (in the Modern Library), H. Bettenson (Penguin paperback), G.E. McCracken et al. (Loeb Classical Library, with Latin text, seven volumes), J. Healey (Everyman Library), and D. Zema et al. (Fathers of the Church, three volumes), R.W. Dyson (Cambridge paperback, 1999).
[2.] Aeneid 1.278-279: Jupiter: "I set no times or bounds for them; I have granted them empire without end." See C.N. Cochrane, Christianity and Classical Culture (Oxford, 1942) 62-73.
[3.] See A.H. Armstrong, ed., The Cambridge History of Later Greek and Early Medieval Philosophy (Cambridge, 1967).
[4.] For his continued hesitation at the end of his life, see Reconsiderations 1.1.3; E. Portalie, Guide to the Thought of Saint Augustine (Chicago, 1960) 148-50.
[5.] Cf. A. Lauras and H. Rondet, "Le theme des deux cités dans l'oeuvre de saint Augustin," Études augustiniennes (Paris, 1953) 97-160.
[6.] City of God, 11.26-28; the same psychology pervades Augustine's writings and is expounded in The Trinity, where the three parts of the soul are interpreted as the image and likeness of the trinity in man. Cf. M. Schmaus, Die psychologische Trinitätslehre des hl. Augustinus (Münster, 1927).
[7.] Cf. P. Brown, Augustine of Hippo 387-391; J.N.D. Kelly, Jerome (London: Duckworth, 1975) 179-186.
[8.] Cf. C.N. Cochrane, Christianity and Classical Culture, esp. 336-337.
[9.] As he did in City of God 5.26, a passage that has drawn criticism from modern writers; but cf. Y.-M. Duval, "L'eloge de Theodose dans la 'Cité de Dieu' (V, 26, 1)," Recherches augustiniennes 4(1966): 135-179.
[10.] The Seven Books of History against the Pagans, translated in FC by R.J. Deferrari. See T.E. Mommsen, "Orosius and Augustine" in his Medieval and Renaissance Studies (Ithaca 1959) 325-348.
[11.] Cf. H.-X. Arquillière, L'augustinisme politique (Paris, 1934; second edition, 1952).
[12.] For text, translation, and commentary of Book 19, see R.H. Barrow, An Introduction to Saint Augustine: "The City of God" (London, 1950).
[13.] For Augustine's reaction, see the Life
by his disciple Possidius, chapter 30 (translated in F.R. Hoare,
The Western Fathers [New York: Harper, 1954] and