Dr. Guy Spielmann @ Georgetown University (USA)

 France: A Cultural Primer

©2015 Guy Spielmann

 Formality - Conformity | Expectations in social encounters | Service - Administration
Expectations in an academic setting
| Suggested bibliography

     Even though, on the surface, the French lifestyle may not seem overly exotic to Americans, fundamental cultural differences belie the uniformization that seem to have taken place. Mcdonald's outlets may proliferate in every French city, American sitcoms and films may rule on gallic screens, and NBA apparel may have become a favorite among teenagers; yet concluding that the French have adopted American culture would be extremely misguided.
     The following primer is intended for those—college students especially—who are going to live in France for an extended period of time. Naturally, "French culture" cannot be encapsulated in a few hundred words, and the following pointers can only provide a few basic do's and don'ts, mostly in order to avoid predictable misunderstandings and frustrations that could spoil an otherwise wonderful stay in the Hexagone. However, I have added some comments which, as they explain the causes of cultural differences, can lead to a deeper comprehension of what makes the French think and act the way they do.

Formality - Conformity

     It would be tempting to state that American culture encourages casualness, whereas French culture promotes formality; in many respects, the opposite is true, as Americans are more likely to follow the rules and laws that exist in relatively small numbers, while the French, who face a plethora of rules, tend to flout or ignore them— sometimes simply in order to keep their existence at a manageable level of sanity or simplicity. This is especially obvious when it comes to laws that are supposed to frame daily collective life, largely unenforced and in many cases unenforceable.
     On the other hand, many aspects of French public life are characterized by formality, which could be defined as strict adherence to (mostly unspoken) rules of behavior in a wider range of social situations. If you want to blend in, earn respect, or at least be taken seriously, you must do your best to figure out and abide by these rules. They may be difficult to grasp, partly because they are often implicit, but also because the French often claim to be fiercely individualistic, when in fact, they tend to shy away from expressing individuality and originality. Witness the availability of clothes, which are often more fanciful in cut and color than what one can find in American stores, yet remain within a very narrow range of styles, so that everyone is wearing the same fashions and colors at the same time, and it proves extremely difficult to break the mold. In the U.S, clothes may be less stylish, but a broader choice is available at all times and people (with the exception of hard-core fashionistas) feel less compelled to wear something that is not "in" at any given moment. Which brings us to...

Dress codes. From a French perspective, Americans tend to dress excessively casually in situations where no specific dress code is established (shopping, going to a friend's place, to a college class), and excessively formally when required to do so. The French are, in a way, less extreme in their approach to formal dress, which is why you will see business people in the kind of fanciful, colorful garb that would be unthinkable in an American corporate setting; on the other hand, this is also and why few people ever get to wear tuxedos and gowns, except those who attend state functions or society balls (hence the absence in France of "formal wear" rental stores so ubiquitous in the U.S.). On the other hand, French people tend to dress relatively formally all the time; nothing amuses (or horrifies) them more than the American habit of stepping out of one's home in shorts, sneakers or sandals, and a wrinkled T-shirt. The quintessential vision of American sloppiness in French eyes is a woman going shopping in what looks like a house frock, with curlers in her hair. Even among the relatively casual college student crowd, you will notice very few T-shirts–jeans–and– sneakers outfits on a university campus; and French people tend to wear age- and gender-distinctive clothes and accessories in most circumstances. It is of course acceptable to be dressed like a kid when you are 10, much less so after you start becoming an adult (around 16), and definitely not thereafter when you find yourself in an "adult" situation like work or higher education.
Read "Pourquoi les Américaines n'ont pas de look" <http://madame.lefigaro.fr/style/le-no-look-des-americaines-160115-93781> an article in Le Figaro that will give you a sense of how the French feel about the complete lack of fashion sense among Americans (this piece is about women, but men are just as concerned).

"Elles n'ont pas peur d'arriver avec une robe de bal en soirée. Et enfilent impunément leur jogging informe le week-end. Autant dire que les Américaines nous laissent parfois perplexes quant à leur conception du style. […] A-t-on le droit de dégainer sa robe fourreau pour un simple afterwork ou, pire, de mettre des Uggs sous prétexte que c’est dimanche? À l’aube de la 72e Fashion Week de New York—et au péril de notre vie—, on a décidé de poser tout haut la question que tout le monde se pose tout bas (âmes sensibles s’abstenir): peut-on raisonnablement respecter le style vestimentaire des Américaines?"

Posture. The French body tends to be kept muscularly tense while walking, standing or even sitting, which induces a sort of stiffness further reinforced by wearing more formal attire (suit jackets, dress shoes, skirts and high heels). This is why French people can often identify an American at a glance, purely by his/her "relaxed" posture, which can easily be deemed improperly casual and derided as "slouching."

Use of the language, orally and in writing. The French—even those with limited education—are quite proud of their language and treat it with a level of reverence that often puzzles foreigners. Remember that there exists not one but two official bodies that legislate on language, the Académie française (whose role is largely symbolic), and the Ministry of Education, which actually decides on what is correct usage, and what can be tolerated without being fully condoned. Since the educational system is highly centralized, the Ministry of Education's decrees are immediately passed down to every classroom and become the rule of the land. Passionate public debates have raged on TV, in newspapers, teachers' lounges and cafés about reforms that would let people forgo the use of diacriticals like the accent circonflexe in some words; this is not surprising in a culture that still considers poor spelling and faulty grammar as character flaws, and where a nationwide dictation contest organized by a popular TV host (the Dictées de Pivot, now called Les Dicos d'or) has become a major media event.
— See the Web page of the Académie française on the French language
— See the Web page of the Les Dicos d'or     
Moreover, written French is a markedly different language than its spoken counterpart, not merely a transcription of it:"Il écrit comme il parle" ("S/he writes like s/he talks") is a derogatory statement. Even native speakers have a hard time mastering the intricacies of writing, which thus serve as a powerful vector for social distinction and discrimination. "Good writing" means a lot more than correct grammar and spelling, as it involves rhetorical strategies that can only be learned through years of schooling and extensive reading of "great books."

Implicit conformity. Although ever-present official regulations and myriad laws seem to be routinely ignored or circumvented, French society imposes a considerable amount of implicit conformity in all domains, from meal hours to the color of clothes you can('t) wear. The restaurant provides an apt metaphor: in the U.S., menus easily run over five or six pages, with an often mind-boggling array of options, and, except in the fancier establishments, you can order just about anything you want, prepared any way you want, as long as the kitchen can produce it and you are willing to pay for it. A server won't flinch when customers ask that salad dressing be put on the side, and a baked potato substituted for fries. In France, there is a choice of dishes, but generally few or no options within each choice: if you ask for substitutions, the server may look at you as if you were making a wildly excentric request, and although there may be no technical reason why substitutions cannot be managed, the server (and the chef) tend to regard the given rule of order as immutable, as if it were sacred. In other words, if the menu lists salmon with rice and sirloin with fries, and you ask for sirloin with rice, you may be flatly told that your request cannot be accomodated. No other explanation will be offered other than "Ça ne va pas être possible" or "Ça ne se fait pas".

"Ça ne se fait pas!" Sometimes, you will be told that something "just cannot be done" (ça ne se fait pas), without any justification, and even though you have reason to believe that it can indeed be done. Do not be surprised, however, if your attempts at negotiating or solving the problem are met with stubborn refusal, even when you go as far as proposing a possible and completely workable solution. The impersonal pronoun ça—as opposed to Je ne veux pas le faire or some other subjective construction—provides a clue as to the "objective" nature that such interdictions seem to possess, which makes them impervious to human agency. In fact, feasability is not at issue: the overwhelming concern is what people will think or say if you do something differently than in the expected manner.
    The situation outlined above, however, points to a more subtle process, since there can hardly be anything scandalous about asking the server to substitute rice for fries: the French mind is used to things existing and happening in a certain, predictable way, no matter how impractical or unpleasant, and change is initially perceived as a disturbance of this order—even though it may demonstrably bring about improvement. If the benefits of change are not sizeable and immediately obvious, the status quo will nearly always be deemed preferable.
     In other words, by asking the server to substitute rice for fries, you are disturbing the order of things for no good reason other than your own whimsy. A French person faced with the same predicament will likely not even entertain the thought of asking for a substitution: s/he will order the sirloin and not eat the fries, without harboring any resentment towards the server or the chef. A "pragmatic" reason for resigning oneself would be that such a request is probably futile; but the most likely reason is that the French person has internalized the "prevailing order of things" to such a degree that s/he feels intensely uncomfortable at the idea of challenging it, so that settling for a less-than-desirable solution seems preferable.
       In many aspects of life, you may be presented with rules and procedures which seem unnecessarily rigid, or even absurd—to you as well as to French people in some cases—but that no one seems willing to change or even challenge; however, you will find the French quite willing and eager to bend, disregard or flout certain rules, which leads the outsider to wonder why such rules are not abolished altogether. Rather than face the ordeal of initiating change, the French much prefer devising off-the book, seat-of-the-pants schemes and alternative ways of getting things done, which are collectively known as....

Système D—the "D" stands for débrouille (or démerde)—inventive resourcefulness in the face of technical difficulties or impossibly stringent regulations—which is considered quintessentially French. To master it, one must possess a mixture of problem-solving skills, contempt towards established authority and a healthy dose of chutzpah. Obtaining bootleg copies of a professor's class notes (so you don't have to show up for lectures at all), jerry-rigging your moped to make it exceed its legal engine power, hitch-hiking (or roller-blading) across town when your city is paralyzed by a mass tyransit strike, or having a friend of a friend who is a police officer cancel your traffic tickets are common examples of Système D.
     Again, you may wonder why it is not simpler to seek systemic solutions to all these issues; in addition to the phobia of change mentioned earlier, the answer possibly lies in a deep-rooted sense of achievement and giddy pleasure that the French derive from getting something done against all odds, and especially when mockery of authority is involved.

 Formality - Conformity | Expectations in social encounters  | Service - Administration
Expectations in an academic setting
| Suggested bibliography

Expectations in social encounters

     When asked about social relationships, French people who have lived in the U.S. inevitably remark that, although Americans are wonderfully open and accessible to instant acquaintance, they turn out to be frustratingly elusive and shallow as long-term friends. In other words, relationships gel very quickly, but remain at a superficial level thereafter. The immediate congeniality that Americans project thus comes to be seen by the French as phony, even hypocritical. Conversely, Americans settling in France may have the impression that making acquaintances, let alone making true friends, involves an impossibly long and protracted effort, with weeks or months of exchanging banalities and calling one another Monsieur or Madame before the ice melts—if it ever does.
     This initial aloofness, combined with manners that can be perceived as rather brusque (for all their formal polish), has led some to believe that many French people hate or resent Americans, whereas in fact everyone gets treated this way. French socializing strategy involves a certain amount of distance for what can be regarded as a trial period, after which closer relationships may be allowed to blossom; someone lacking the time to go through this trial period may feel unwelcome and excluded. On a more positive note, it must be said that American social exuberance can hasten the process among receptive French people who find it refreshing and sympathique—a judgment which may imply amused condescension, although that too can be eventually overcome...

     When it is allowed to happen, socializing is a serious business, with rules of its own:

Modes of address. Always be very careful to use Monsieur and Madame with greeting/parting formulas when addressing people with whom you are not in intimate terms—do not however, use last names with Monsieur and Madame in greetings, which is considered folksy and gauche. Avoid first names, unless specifically instructed to the contrary by your French acquaintance; only propose to use first names to people of your own age (or younger) and equivalent socio-economic status (e.g., students in their twenties). The use of tu or vous is of course an enduring conundrum, which defies easy systemization. The rules of thumb are to always use vous as a default, except for addressing pre-teen children—better to sound pompous than risk offending someone (and thus lose face!). The older and/or hierarchically superior person should always be the one to initiate the switch to tu, should s/he deem it appropriate and comfortable (which may occur within minutes of your meeting, after several years, or never at all); among students, however, the tu is prevalent and can be initiated by whomever feels more comfortable about it.
     Foreigners are usually granted some leeway, but, unless your interlocutor has explicitly stated that s/he would like to be using tu, remain aware of people's reaction: if you have switched to tu but your interlocutor continues using vous, it is a subtle but clear sign that you should retreat to using vous as well. A common error is to confuse the use of tu/vous, with that of first or last names and of kissing, which, although they all represent forms of familiarity, are not automatically associated in French culture. For example, people may call one another by their first name, exchange bises (see below), and yet retain the vous. It is no longer unusual, when introduced by a third party, to kiss people whom you are meeting for the very first time, and use first names right away, but the vous may endure much longer, sometimes for years. Interestingly, tu has become ever more common as a standard in French-speaking communities outside France (especially in Québec and Africa)—but not France.

Greetings. Most social and professional encounters require specific greeting and parting phrases. When using merci, s'il vous plait, pardon, etc., tag on Monsieur or Madame, but not the person's last name. Expect to greet people with a handshake or a kiss, upon first daily contact and when parting (even if the encounter is very brief). The number of bises (kisses on the cheeks) exchanged varies from two to four, depending on the region you hail from; in cross-regional encounters, whoever gives the most bises prevails. Although the intensity of kissing varies from an actual, lip-smacking smooch to the "air kiss," it is more a matter of style than an indicator of how much one person cares about the other. Kissing among male friends is relatively rare in the northern half of France, but less so in the Mediterranean area (male relatives and very close friends normally do exchange kisses in every region).
     Handshakes tend to be very firm, with a single, upward-and-downward motion; the term of serrer la main—i.e., "squeeze the hand"—often turns out to be painfully descriptive of what happens, as people convey frankness and earnestness in the intensity with which hands are squeezed: a limp hand often inspires instant suspicion. Unwary Americans, including women, have been known to have their knuckles crushed (or so it seems) by very well meaning French people. In any case, some specific greeting and physical contact is expected; except in the most casual of situations, an American-style wave-of-the-hand or laconic verbal acknowledgement like bonjour or au revoir may be received as a snub or an insult.

Be prepared for intense discussion of political issues and current events in France and the world, even in casual social encounters. Even relatively uneducated French people like to discuss topics which, in American culture would be considered weighty or specialized, such as agricultural subsidies from the European Union, foreign policy towards African states, or the platform of a political party.

Politics, religion and other "controversial" domains are not only acceptable as discussion topics, they are in fact preferred to amiable social banter; even the discussion of sports and movies will be intellectualized to a level not commonly sanctioned in American culture. Being unable or unwilling to address such topics, or to reach the appropriate level of complexity in discussing them, will provoke thinly veiled contempt from your interlocutors. Two issues need to be taken into account: the amount of background knowledge (culture générale) and the rhetorical skills necessary to successfully engage in this kind of conversation; the latter includes a great measure of self-control, and emotional detachment from your point of view. Americans, when they do enter in a debate, tend to get emotionally involved in the cause they are defending, which leads to earnest, impassioned pleas for this or that principle. The French find this attitude amusingly naive, and will often bait American into heated discussions on controversial topics, only to make fun of them when they take the game too seriously and lose all critical distance from their own arguments. Such baiting often comes in the form of a scathing critique of American crass consumerist culture, hawkish foreign interventionism or persistance in applying the death penalty. Don't be taken in!

Expect a fair amount of behaviors that you would consider "aggressive" in social and professional interaction, and try to avoid taking what you perceive to be criticism or aggression personally: it is just a social game. The French love arguing so much that they will sometimes indulge in it purely for fun, even though they do not harbor any strong feelings towards one opinion or another. What really matters is out-arguing the other—a social form of the rhetorical disputatio which has also been kept alive in education.
     To prepare for this kind of social interaction, watch the news on TV, read a paper or a newsmagazine on a daily basis. Be aware of what people are talking about, and try to gather enough information so that you may at least voice an educated opinion about it. Try not to argue "as an American," and to understand the French logic in what gets said, decided and done—even if you disagree with it. You also need to defer to the French sense of history and self-importance, even when it is expressed in anti-American terms: remember that the country's days of grandeur—«When France Dominated the World», as a magazine headline put it in december 2005, refering to the Age of Louis XIV—are long gone, and that its citizens are eager to keep this glorious past alive. Watching the evening news on TV remains an important social ritual among people of all ages and socio-economic groups; you will be able to relate to others much more easily if you do so as well. Professing self-satisfied ignorance about history, geography or politics will only bring you scorn, even from modestly-educated people.

— See Denis Meyer's page on Étiquette (University of Hong Kong). Although this remarkably detailed document is very accurate, many of the rules it exposes are respected only in bourgeois, well-to-do urban circles, and of course in "high society." A large segment of the French population does not abide by such rules, either by choice or by ignorance, and follows a considerably modified version of this traditional étiquette. However, the general principles behind the rules are nearly universally valid, regardless of the socio-economic context.

 Formality - Conformity | Expectations in social encounters | Service - Administration
Expectations in an academic setting | Suggested bibliography


Do not necessarily expect American-style diligence ("the customer is king") from service people. Most of them are not trained to think that securing and keeping your business is an absolute priority. If they feel that you, the customer, are a nuisance—for being picky, for taking too long to decide what you want to buy, for asking too many questions—they will let you know in so many words, or simply ignore you. Since few employees work on commission and since labor laws and powerful unions make dismissals very difficult, service people are disinclined to make efforts at pleasing you.

Never bring up the quality or style of service in the U.S. as an argument to demand better service, except perhaps in outlets of large multinational chains of hotels and restaurants, and even if you figure that a bad situation can easily be improved. Instead, smile, beg, or otherwise finesse your way around to get what you want. It is always better to cast yourself as a victim in need of help than as a higher-up who can make demands. This is even more true when dealing with Fonctionnaires (state employees in the Post Office, train ticket counter, etc.), who are immune to performance reviews or complaints. Morevover, they often hold the power to make your life very complicated and miserable if you cross them: be very ingratiating to them, even if they treat you badly.

     In spite of the famous motto Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité, French society remains very hierachical, and most people will defer quite obsequiously to someone whom they perceive as their legitimate superior in a social or professional context. The problem is that, in certain contexts, the hierarchical relationship may not be what it seems: in stores, restaurants and the administration, service people do not believe that they are "at your service," in the sense that they consider you as their equal, and thus not as a "superior" to whom they must defer. In their mind, putting heart in what they do, being attentive to your needs and trying to please you would amount to acknowledging that they are, in fact, your inferiors; they find it painful enough to be holding a job that involves serving others, without going as far as behaving like servants.

If a rule or regulation seems inane and/or impossible to meet, don't panic!—there is most probably a way around it. Ask a native about the appropriate Système D solution!

 Formality - Conformity | Expectations in social encounters | Service - Administration
Expectations in an academic setting
| Suggested bibliography
Expectations in an academic setting 

    As the French university system is open to anyone with a Baccalauréat, the absence of selection at the point of entry must be counterbalanced by rather fierce process of elimination, either by attrition or mass failing. The considerably more prestigious Grandes Ecoles rely on elite "preparatory" classes and entrance exams which serve a similar purpose: weed out the less deserving students, and focus on training an elite. In any case, educational institutions consider themselves endowed with a noble and sacred mission which must remain impervious to market forces and students' opinions. As universities are severely overcrowded, it is the interest of the faculty and administration to fail and discourage as many people as possible, which explains in part how the system functions. In the Grandes Ecoles, students are expected to feel so privileged to have been admitted that they should endure any hardship imposed on them. The result is a teaching style characterized by aloofness, dogmatism, and a certain abruptness: direct and scathing criticism from professors—in front of the entire class—is the norm.

    In addition, the French educational system is only meant to provide instruction, not extracurricular activities or student support services. Self-reliance is therefore an essential virtue in many domains of university life: going through administrative procedures, finding information about courses, locating assigned books or completing assignments usually require a certain amount of ingenuity, cunning, sometimes trickery—Système D again. This is deemed part of your education in a kind of Darwinian system where, in theory, only the fittest—academically, but also in terms of overall resourcefulness—make it through. In fact, social background plays an crucial role in overcoming these hurdles: the further your parents went, the further you are likely to go. Not coincidentally, fully half of the students in the elite Grandes Ecoles have one or two parents who is a teacher, and thus who knows the system from the inside. Although French social selection is not your concern, in practical terms, this means that...

You are on your own: you cannot expect anyone—especially professors!—to provide detailed instructions on how to deal with the various aspects of academic life. You must gather information yourself inductively, or by asking classmates who somehow know more than you do. There are few incentives for professors to help you out: not only are they not paid to do so, but they often have no office and huge classloads. Moreover, they are not accountable for their students' success, nor are they evaluated by them.

You must set your own pace of study: professors usually hand out a reading list at the beginning of class, but remain very vague about what you should be doing and when. Unfortunately, American students often interpret this attitude to mean that there is not much to do, and suffer the consequences later in the year, at exam time (it is not unusual that one's grade for an entire semester should hinge on a single final exam).

You are wholly responsible for your work. In many university courses, you may never have to actually show up for class, if you can somehow get reliable notes and if evaluation consists in a final exam only (or a mid-term—examen partiel—and a final). In any case, you decide on when, how, and how much to work. Before skipping classes, however, remember that you are not a native speaker of French, and that the linguistic benefits of listening to lectures and taking notes are invaluable.

You are responsible for finding out what is going on at all times, and ignorance is no excuse. Most of the time, you must actively seek even basic information, such as the time and date of exams, or the grade you received, by looking at postings on the department's bulletin board. Don't expect university staff to send you reminders or keep track of your work.

Efficient note-taking is essential. Professors expect their students to have taken extensive notes and memorized much of them by exam time (in some cases, memorization and recall is all that is required to pass).

You must learn how to write appropriately. French students are expected to be versed in the various forms of writing that they had to master in order to pass the Bac: explication de texte, commentaire composé and dissertation (or essai littéraire). These are not simply various ways of formatting a paper; they embody different approaches to discussing and analyzing ideas and issues. In all disciplines, the drafting of a solid plan is paramount, as the structure of a paper is considered more important than its actual contents and its style; in some cases, you are not even required to write out the paper but must supply a plan détaillé instead (a common practice at Science Po, for instance). You can best learn about writing forms by reading how-to books published for a native audience (which include strategies as well as sample papers), but also by asking tips from your classmates—who have had almost ten years of practice.
For a crash-course on writing forms, see Les Pratiques textuelles on this site.

Be careful about voicing your opinion. Although French education does not entirely advocate conformity at the expense of creativity, originality is only allowed inasmuch as students can prove that they have mastered a substantial amount of pre-determined content and form. For all intents and purposes, this is not normally believed to have happened until the Second Cycle (Master's and Doctorate level). As a result, you are rarely supposed to give your own opinion, and even less express your feelings about a particular issue, but should rather present arguments which can be supported by evidence—from the text you are explicating, or from recognized authorities you can cite.

You must develop your proficiency in Culture générale. University-level work is very specialized because students are assumed to have received a solid general education before the Bac at a level comparable to that of the first two years of college in the U.S. You are therefore supposed to possess and make use of a significant amount of culture générale, a knowledge and understanding of various basic issues and concepts in literature, philosophy, history, geography, science, math, etc., deemed indispensable to the educated person. Beware! This may include material that may seem fairly "specialized" to you.
     As a rule, American college students are deemed to be severely lacking in culture générale as understood in France. Some books (see below) can provide a jump-start, but the best policy is to follow a daily regimen of reading newspapers (Le Monde) and magazines (L'Express, Le Nouvel Observateur, Le Point.)—or their on-line versions, watching TV news, and systematically looking up unfamiliar words, names and notions you encounter. Your level of knowledge about places, people, events or notions that are being routinely discussed in a generalist paper like Le Monde can serve as a good indicator of your competency in culture générale.
— See the Web sites of major French media outlets

 Formality - Conformity | Expectations in social encounters | Service - Administration
Expectations in an academic setting |
Suggested bibliography

Suggested bibliography in French

Culture générale

The following are inexpensive paperbacks that you may consider purchasing or borrowing:

  • G. Michaud et A. Kimmel, Le Nouveau Guide France, Hachette.
  • E. Huisman-Perrin et Thierry Leterre, Eléments de culture générale, CNED-La Documentation française, 2005.
  • B. de Gunten, A. Martin, M. Niogret, Les Institutions de la France. Nathan, coll. «Repères pratiques» No7, 1998.
  • 200 questions-réponses de culture générale. Lamarre, 1998.
  • Gardin N., Comment acquérir une bonne culture générale. Marabout, 1998.
  • J.-F. Brière et L. Wylie, Les Français, Prentice Hall, 2000.

    Those studying political science may want to look at

    Jean-Jacques Chevallier et Gérard Conac, Histoire des institutions et des régimes politiques de la France de 1789 à nos jours. Dalloz, 1992.


There are dozens of books dealing with academic writing. Those from Éditions Marabout are cheap, easily available (they are even sold in supermarkets), and very well written.

  • Bruno Hongre, 25 Modèles d'explication de texte et de lecture méthodique, Marabout.
  • Véronique Anglard, 50 Modèles de commentaires composés, Marabout.
  • Geneviève Clerc, 50 Modèles de résumé de texte, Marabout.
  • Nicole Amancy et Thierry Ventura, 50 Modèles de dissertation, Marabout.

 Formality - Conformity | Expectations in social encounters | Service - Administration
Expectations in an academic setting
| Suggested bibliography