November 1: Structures of Authority in early Christianity

1. Local:
**********Baptism (initiation) --> infant baptism
***************Apostles' Creed, Lord's Prayer
**********Eucharist (excommunication --> penance)
*******first "priests" (Rome)

2. Councils
*****Nicea 325
*****Constantinople 381
*****Ephesus 431
*****Chalcedon 451
**********emperors presiding over bishops (eastern pattern)
3. "Popes"
*****Peter to fourth century
*****role of Leo the Great at Chalcedon (451)
*****aristocratic takeover of the church
*****Gregory the Great: spiritual authority
**********ecclesiastical authority (other provinces)
**********temporal authority (papal estates --> papal states)
**********temporal authority (de facto governor of Rome)
4. Heresy and orthodoxy
----never completely orthodox
----but everybody always believed they should be
----eventual subsidence into Greek/Latin halves of empire