Junillus greets the holy and most blessed bishop Primasius:

See also the introductory essay and Latin text that accompany this translation. There is also an index of biblical citations for this text.

[1] You yourself know, venerable Father Primasius, that, aware of my life and subject, just as I do not deny that I have an enthusiasm for divine law, so I do not presume to say that I am a teacher of it, fearing that prophetic verse: "But God said to the sinner, 'Why are you recounting my acts of justice, and why do you take for yourself my covenant through your mouth?'" (Ps 49[50]:16). But when the interest of see had forced you to travel abroad among your other most reverend fellow bishops all the way to Constantinople, out of a feeling of civility we came to acquaintance and conversation. But you, in that famous manner of yours, asked nothing sooner than if there was anyone who among the Greeks was burning with enthusiasm for and understanding of the divine books. To this I replied that I had seen a certain man, Paul by name, a Persian by birth, who was thoroughly taught by a school of the Syrians in the city of Nisibis, where divine law is taught by public teachers in an orderly and regular fashion, just as among us in worldly studies grammar and rhetoric are taught. [2] Then long asked if I had knowledge of any of his sayings, I said that I had read certain principles with which that man was accustomed to imbue the minds of his students, who were instructed in the superficial aspect of divine Scriptures, before he revealed the depths of exposition, in order that in time they might get to know the intention and order of the very causes which are found in divine law, that each detail might be taught not sporadically and chaotically, but in a regular fashion. You, Father, judged that these things in some way are necessary for all Christians wishing to be educated, and you forced me, long excusing myself, to the impudence of publishing. For this reason I collected these basic principles into two very short books, adding the useful form of speaking itself (as much as I could), in order that, as if with a teacher asking questions and his students answering, each detail might be said briefly and quite clearly; and lest any confusion might come forth through the negligence of scribes (as is usual), I placed the Greek letter delta [=didaskalos] before the teacher, but mu [=mathetai] before the students, in order that because of foreign characters, i.e., those which Latin writing does not use, every mistake may be completely prevented.

[3] There are other remarkable records of that man. For I have heard him rather subtly (as I think) explaining even blessed Paul's Letter to the Romans, which explanation I snatched up from his mouth, lest its memory slip away; but the thorns of cares and troubles keep us from bearing fruit in the Lord's field (Mk 4:7, 18,19). This one rashness is enough, that for the divine treasury from a manifest poverty I dare to cast these two mites (Lk 21:2; Mk 12:41-44). There are those who shower it with talents, whence they may be given to the poor; who can offer the divine sanctuaries the jewels of virtues, the gold of life, the silver of knowledge. I have in hand nothing more than these two mites, and themselves furnished by another. But surely I am guaranteeing much for myself from the Evangelical Weigher, because although others are able to bestow valuable things from among very valuable things, and many things from among very many things, I nevertheless have offered more because I gave my all.


1. Concerning the parts of divine law.

D. Into how many primary parts is the science of divine law divided? M. Into two, of which one properly belongs to the very surface of discourse, the other is in the matters which Scripture itself thoroughly teaches us.

2. Which things belong to the surface of the Scriptures?

D. How many are the things properly belonging to the very surface of discourse? M. Five. D. Which ones? M. The kinds of discourse, their authority, the author, the mode, the arrangement.

[2] D. How many kinds of discourse are there? M. Four. For it is either historical, or prophetic, or proverbial, or plainly didactic.

3. Concerning history.

D. What is history? M. The narration of events past or present.

[2] D. In which books is divine history contained? M. In seventeen: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Kings (four books according to us, two according to the Hebrews), the four Gospels--according to Matthew, according to Mark, according to Luke, according to John --, the Acts of the Apostles. D. Do no other books belong to divine history? M. Many people add two books of Paraleipomena , Job, Tobit, Ezra<-Nehemiah>, Judith, Esther, two books of Maccabees. D. Why are these books not current among the canonical Scriptures? M. Because among the Hebrews, too, they used to be excluded with regard to this distinction, just as Jerome and the others testify.

[3] D. Is no other kind found in these books? M. The other kinds occur, but not principally, because even if the persons by whom things were first said spoke in keeping with the other kinds, nevertheless by him who wrote the book the things were reported as history. For example, the blessings of the patriarch Jacob were said by him indeed as prophecies, but Moses, who reports them, narrates them in a historical format. And when Moses himself says that in the beginning heaven was made, and the earth (Gn 1:1), he indeed speaks with prophetic inspiration, but he narrates in the historical form. Similarly, too, history sometimes sounds proverbial, e.g., "Walking trees walked, to anoint a king over themselves" (Jgs 9:8). Elsewhere he plainly teaches, e.g., "Hear, O Israel, the Lord your God is the only God" (Dt 6:4). All things nevertheless, as I have said, are composed in historical form.

[4] D. Why does the historical excel the other kinds? M. Because to it the others are subject; itself, to none.

[5] D. What does it share with the others? M. It has in common with plain teaching the fact that both seem to be clear on the surface, although they are very often difficult to understand; for the other kinds have it the opposite.

4. Concerning prophecy.

D. What is prophecy? M. The manifestation--from divine inspiration--of hidden events, past, or present, or future.

[2] D. Give a prophecy in the case of past events. M. "By the word of the Lord the heavens were established" (Ps 32[33]:6), and "because he commanded, and they were made" (Ps 148:5), and "In the beginning God made heaven and earth" (Gn 1:1). D. Give one in the case of present events. M. The prophet saw in the present the knowledge of the theft done by Gehazi (2 Kgs 5:26); and for Ananias and Sapphira, Peter the apostle saw in the present (Acts 5:3). D. Give one in the case of future events. M. "Behold! a virgin will conceive and bear a son, and his name will be called Emanuel" (Is 7:14), etc.

[3] D. Why has "hidden" been put in the definition? M. Because if anyone says things already known, although they are future things, nevertheless he is not a prophet, just as we, when we preach the resurrection, are not prophets. But if he makes known the hidden things of whatever time, then he is a prophet, just as already we have shown. D. Prove this by the evidence of divine Scripture. M. Paul the Apostle, in the first Letter to the Corinthians, says, "If the whole church is assembled together, and all speak in tongues, but uninitiated persons come in, will they not say that you are insane? But if all prophesy, and there enters an unbeliever or an uninitiated person, he is refuted by all, examined by all; the secrets even of his heart are made manifest, and then, falling on his face, he will worship God, declaring that clearly God is among you" (1 Cor 14:23-25). See, the Apostle pointed out the power of prophecy in the manifestation of things secret. But even following in the same Letter and in his others there are many such things.

[4] D. Why have we added, "from divine inspiration"? M. Because those who either by the instigation of evil spirits or other means say hidden things, although they could be called prophets, nevertheless are not numbered among the authors of divine Scriptures.

[5] D. In which books is prophecy taken up? M. In seventeen: the book of 150 Psalms, Hosea, Isaiah, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. But there is still doubt among the Easterners about John's Revelation.

[6] D. Is no other kind found in these books? M. The other kinds occur, but not principally, except for a proof of a prophecy, as in Isaiah (cc. 7, 36, 37) a certain history, for example, of the kings Ahaz and Hezekiah is reported; but the intention of the prophecy is not to compile exploits, but to prove the outcome of things predicted. And in Jeremiah, when it is said, "O land, land, hear the Word of the Lord" (Jer 22:29), he calls the people living in it, proverbially, the "land." And when Isaiah says, "Not such is the fasting I have chosen, says the Lord, but untie the whole knot of wickedness" (Is 58:6), etc., he is for example plainly teaching, but he proclaims these things as if bidden by prophetic inspiration.

[7] D. What does prophecy share with the others? M. It has in common with proverbs the fact that both are difficult on the surface, but very often are not difficult to understand.

5. Concerning Proverbs.

D. Which kind is the proverbial? M. A certain figurative manner of speaking, saying one thing, meaning another, and giving advice in present time.

[2] D. In which books is this kind received? M. In two, Solomon's book of Proverbs and the book of Jesus, grandson of Sirach. D. Is no other book put under this kind? M. Certain people add the so-called book of Wisdom and the Song of Songs.

[3] D. Do other kinds occur also in these books? M. Plain teaching alone occurs, but not principally, except for an explanation or recommendation of proverbs, as, "Fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom" (Prv 9:10).

[4] D. What does the proverbial share with the other kinds? M. It has in common with prophecy the fact that on the surface it seems difficult, although very often it is not difficult to understand.

[5] D. What does the proverbial kind have as its own? M. The fact that neither history nor prophecy is mixed with it; and it alone is that which is so understood that the surface meaning of the words so to speak is done away with.

[6] D. Why in this kind alone have we been allowed to consider not the text of the Scripture itself but the sense, although in the other three kinds we admit allegory so mystically that it is necessary to show the reliability of the narrative? M. Because if we are willing to accept allegory thus everywhere beyond the proverbial kind, with the result that the accuracy of the narrative is lessened, we afford an opportunity to our enemies of interpreting the divine books just as they wish.

[7] D. In how many ways is allegory recognized in divine law? M. Four: either (1) according to transferral, or metaphor, for example, "Angry is the Lord" (Ex 4:14) and "He came down" (Gn 11:5), and similar things which, to insert causes unobtrusively, are transferred to God from human emotions; or (2) according to vivid imagery, or hypotyposis, for example, in the Gospel, "A certain man was coming down from Jerusalem to Jericho" (Lk 10:30), and again, the parable of the vineyard and the vinedressers (Mk 12:1-9). For the arrangement of the things which were being carried out is reported by Christ, complete, for example, with the representation of character and of another's business. Or (3) according to comparison, or simile, as he says, "The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed" (Lk 13:19), etc. For it is not a narrative, as is written in the above example, but the effects are merely compared to the causes. Or (4) according to the proverbial mode, for example, "Drink water from your own vessels, and from your own cistern, and from your own wells" (Prv 5:15), since Scripture means to give a hint that carnal concupiscence should be held in check within the license of marriage.

6. Concerning plain teaching.

D. What kind is plain teaching? M. That by which we are plainly taught about faith or about morals in the present time.

[2] D. Why has it received this name? M. Because, on the one hand, all Scripture teaches something, but it is done under different kinds, which we have mentioned above. This kind, on the other hand, neither composes history nor prophecy, nor speaks proverbially, but just teaches plainly.

[3] D. Which books belong to plain teaching? M. Seventeen canonical ones, i.e., Ecclesiastes, one book, the Letters of Paul the Apostle: one to the Romans, two to the Corinthians, one to the Galatians, one to the Ephesians, one to the Philippians, one to the Colossians, two to the Thessalonians, two to Timothy, one to Titus, one to Philemon, one to the Hebrews, Blessed Peter's first Letter to the Gentiles, and Blessed John's first Letter. D. Do no other books belong to plain teaching? M. Very many add five others which are named the Canonical Letters of the Apostles, i.e., of James, Peter's second, one of Jude, two of John.

[4] D. Is no other kind found in these books? M. The other kinds occur, but not principally, except for proof of a teaching. For when the Apostle says, "And when I had come to the Troad for the Gospel of Christ, the door was opened for me" (2 Cor 2:12), and where he says that he opposed Peter, he seems to be composing something like history (Gal 2:11-14). Again, when he says, "Behold, I tell you a mystery: we will indeed all rise again, but we will not all be transformed" (1 Cor 15:51), he undertakes the work of a prophet. Likewise, when he says, "Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, lazy gluttons" (Ti 1:12), he uses proverbial language. All things nevertheless are inserted, as we have said, for proof of a teaching.

[5] D. What does plain teaching have in common with the other kinds? M. It has in common with history the fact that both seem easy on the surface, although they are very often difficult in respect to examination and understanding.

7. Concerning the authority of the Scriptures.

D. How is the authority of the divine books viewed? M. That certain ones are of complete authority, certain of moderate, certain of none. D. Which are of complete authority? M. Those canonical works which in their several kinds we have completely enumerated. D. Which of moderate? M. The ones which we have said are added by many. D. Which are of no authority? M. All the rest.

[2] D. Are these distinctions found in all the kinds of discourse? M. All these distinctions are found in history and plain teaching; but in prophecy, books of moderate authority are not found, except for Revelation, nor in the proverbial kind are there works altogether devoid of authority.

8. Concerning the writers of the divine books.

D. By what method do we recognize the writers of the divine books? M. In three ways: either from titles and prefaces, as the prophetic books and the letters of the apostle, or from titles only, as the evangelists, or from the tradition of the ancients, as Moses is traditionally said to have written the first five books of history, although the title does not say this, nor does he report, "The Lord said to me," but as if about another, "The Lord said to Moses" (Ex 4:19). Similarly, too, the book of Joshua is traditionally said to have been written by him from whom it is named. And Samuel is held to have written the first book of Kings.

[2] Furthermore, it should be realized that the authors of certain books are completely unknown, such as the book of Judges, and Ruth, and the three last books of Kings, and other similar works; and therefore it should be believed that this has been divinely disposed, in order that other divine books also, not by the merit of the authors, but by the grace of the Holy Spirit, may be perceived to have reached so great a pinnacle of authority.

9. Concerning the modes of the Scriptures.

D. How many modes of divine Scripture are there? M. Two, for either they are written in Hebrew meters in their own tongue or in plain prose. D. What things have been written in meters? M. For example, the Psalms, and the history of Job, and Ecclesiastes, and certain things in the Prophets. D. What things have been written in plain prose? M. All the rest.

[2] D. Why among us have they not been written in the same meters? M. Because no discourse preserves the meter in another language, unless it changes the meaning and arrangement of the words.

10. Concerning the arrangement of the Scriptures.

D. What is the arrangement of the divine volumes? M. That certain are of the Old Testament, certain of the New. D. Which belong to the New Testament? M. The four Gospels, as it was said above, the Apostolic Letters, and the Acts. D. Which belong to the Old Testament? M. All the remaining.

[2] D. What things are characteristic of the Old Testament and of the New? M. The purpose of the Old is to show the New by figures and intimations, but of the New to incite human minds toward the glory of eternal happiness.

11. Concerning these things which Scripture thoroughly teaches us.

D. Because enough was said about these things which were properly belonging to the surface itself of Scripture, now I require the things which there are that Scripture itself teaches us. M. Some three, for it speaks either about God, or about the present age, or about the future.

12. With how many signs does Scripture speak about God?

D. With how many signs does Scripture speak about God? M. Four. For either (1) it indicates his essence, which in Latin we also call substance, for example, "I am who am" (Ex 3:14). Or (2) Persons, or according to the Greeks, hypostases, for instance, "Go, teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" (Mt 28:19). Or (3) operation, as has been written, "According to the working of the power of his strength, which he worked in Christ, raising him from the dead and making him sit at his own right hand" (Eph 1:19,20). Or (4) comparison of him to his creatures, such as, "But to the King of the ages, uncorrupted, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory for ever and ever" (1 Tm 1:17).

13. Concerning the signs of divine essence.

D. In how many ways is the divine essence indicated? M. In two, primarily and secondarily.

[2] D. With what words primarily? M. Eight. For he is called either God, or Lord, or together Lord God, or Adonai, or Sabaoth, or Eli, or Elohim, or He Is. D. Do these words indicate nothing other than God? M. Two only are sometimes improperly said about others, God and Lord, with Paul the Apostle as witness: "Because there are many gods and many lords" (1 Cor 8:5). And, "You are gods and all sons of the Most High" (Ps 81[82]:6). But the remaining six are never said except about God. D. What do these words indicate about God? M. Not what he is, but that he is, for what God is cannot be comprehended.

[3] D. In what ways is God indicated secondarily? M. When Scripture sets forth Persons, or operation, or comparison of him to his creatures. For even when it names the Father, although a first hearing indicates "one engendering," secondarily nevertheless we understand "God"; likewise, too, when it names the Son or the Holy Spirit. And when it says, "almighty," although the term first intimates his operation, secondarily nevertheless we understand "God." And when it says, "invisible," although it primarily means "him who cannot be seen by mortals," and from comparison with us assigns that which we are not to him who made us, secondarily nevertheless we understand "God."

14. Concerning the signs of the Trinity.

D. In how many ways does Scripture indicate the Persons, or existences, of divinity? M. Similarly, in two, primarily and secondarily: primarily, as when we say 'Father, Son, Holy Spirit'; secondarily, through those by which essence or operation or comparison to creatures is indicated. For even when I say, 'God,' which pertains to essence, and when I say, 'almighty,' which pertains to operation, and when I say, 'immutable,' which is said from comparison to creatures, although a first hearing perceives another thing, nevertheless I secondarily understand God, Father and Son and Holy Spirit, either together or singly.

15. In how many ways is the Father indicated?

D. In how many ways is the Father indicated? M. By the name of Father one Person is understood, but not in one way, for he is called it specially in regard to the Son, but generally in regard to his creature; there by the reality of nature, here by the goodness of his grace.

[2] D. Is the Father indicated in this way only? M. Primarily, in this; but secondarily, even from these things which indicate the essence of godhead or operation or comparison to creatures in any way you wish. In addition, even from the term 'Son' Father is secondarily understood; and by the name of Holy Spirit the Father himself to be sure, to whom the Spirit belongs, is tacitly understood.

[3] D. In the Trinity itself is the term 'Father' ascribed to no other Person? M. A saying is read about the Son, "The Father of the future age" (Is 9:6), but this was said according to the flesh, and figuratively, not literally, in order that he might be shown as the cause and source of our happiness, because through the resurrection of his flesh human nature begins both to hope for and to gain the future life.

16. In how many ways is the Son indicated?

D. In how many ways does Scripture speak about the Son? M. Five. Now for instance, (1) sometimes his godhead alone is indicated, and the assumption of flesh is secondarily understood, e.g., "The only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father" (Jn 1:18). But (2) sometimes human nature alone has been taken up by him and, secondarily, godhead, e.g., "In the final age he has spoken to us by his Son" (Heb 1:2). Sometimes (3) both together, e.g., "Have this in mind in you which was also in Christ Jesus, who, though he was by form God, did not think that to be equal to God a thing to be grasped at, but emptied himself, taking the form of a slave" (Phil 2:5-7). Sometimes (4) even with respect to the body there seem to be sayings which must be referred primarily to godhead, e.g., "the Son of Man, who is in heaven" (Jn 3:13). Again (5), sometimes there seem to be things ascribed to divinity which are specifically traced back to the flesh, e.g., "For if they had known, they would never have crucified the Lord of glory" (1 Cor 2:8).

[2] D. Why does Scripture speak about the Son in these five ways? M. On the one hand, separately it speaks then in keeping with his natures, in order that it may show unconfused their peculiar properties; both alike then, in order that it may assert unity. On the other hand, it alternates human things with divine and divine with human, in order that both may be shown as belonging to one Person and as indivisible.

[3] D. In how many ways is the Person of the Son usually indicated? M. In two: even he, primarily and secondarily. On the one hand, he is indicated primarily when he is called the Anointed One absolutely. For when others are called anointed ones, something else is added, e.g., "the anointed of the Lord" (1 Sm 24:7,11), or "my anointed" (Ps 104[105]:15). But only God's Son by nature is absolutely said to be the Anointed One, whence even this is declared to be characteristic of him alone. Secondarily, on the other hand, the Person of the Son is understood both from those three things by which even the Father is, and from the very term 'Father,' and from that of 'Holy Spirit,' because the Spirit, too, is said to belong to the Father and of the Son.

17. In how many ways is the Person of the Holy Spirit indicated?

D. In how many ways is the Person of the Holy Spirit indicated? M. Primarily, in one, as is read, "Go, baptize all nations in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" (Mt 28:19). And again, "For you are the temple of the Holy Spirit" (1 Cor 6:19). But secondarily, even from the grace which he bestows, which even itself is likewise called the Holy Spirit, e.g., "The Holy Spirit will come upon you" (Lk 1:35). And, "Receive the Holy Spirit" (Jn 20:22).

[2] Likewise, too, from these things by which is indicated divine essence, or operation, or comparison to creatures, just as we said also about the Son. But, too, the Person of the Father and of the Son indicates the Holy Spirit secondarily, because whatever we state is theirs we understand secondarily that it also indicates the Person of the Holy Spirit, either as a coworker or as one who has the same substance.

18. What do the Persons of the Trinity have in common or as their own?

D. What do each of the Persons of the Trinity have as their own? M. The fact that the Father is never called the Son, nor in related terms the Holy Spirit, although separately he may be called both Spirit and holy. Nor can the Son properly be called the Father or, conformably, the Holy Spirit. Nor again is the name of 'Father' or 'Son' ascribed to the Holy Spirit.

[2] D. Which things are common to these Persons? M. All things which are acknowledged to pertain to the indication either of essence or operation or comparison to creatures, whence even it is agreed that the Trinity is of one substance [by the terms 'Father' and 'Son' and 'Holy Spirit'].

[3] D. What is indicated in these Persons? M. Not what they are, but that they are. For what they are (as above we said about God) speech is not able to unfold.

19. Through how many ways is the operation of divinity indicated?

D. Through how many kinds is the efficient power, or operation, of divinity pointed out--which the Greeks call energeia? M. Four: either by creation, or by providence toward creatures, or by preparation of future events for them, or by the outcome or result of things prepared.

[2] D. Give the things pertaining to operation. M. As when he is called Good, especially because the things which did not use to exist he made and makes exist; and Wise, because we discern that all things have been so wonderfully arranged by him; and Mighty, because he was able to accomplish the things which he so well and wisely willed. D. Are these things in God by essence or by will? M. God is simple, nor is there in him an essence other than will; whence come even all the terms for his operation; although they differ among themselves in definitions, nevertheless in him no difference, or diversity, is found. [2b] Therefore even by essence, or nature, he creates, because nothing is accidental to him; and yet, also he creates by will, because he accomplishes nothing out of necessity, or compelled. For not --just as fire burns out of necessity of nature, or bees manufacture waxes, or spiders webs, out of natural necessity-- thus does God also work, but God therefore is said to create by nature, or essence--lest will in him be demonstrated as something else--and therefore by will, because he is not at all compelled to work; but essentially he wills, and by will he exists.

[3] D. Give the things specifically pertaining to creation. M. As when he is called Maker, Artificer, Creator, and the like, although he is said also 'to make' in place of 'to dispose,' e.g., "He made salvation in the presence of all the earth" (Ps 73[74]:12), but then it is said according to a kind of providence. D. Give the things which specifically pertain to providence. M. As when he is called Helper, Foreknowing, Almighty, and the like. D. Give the things pertaining to the preparation of future events. M. As when he is called the Way, and Hope, and Refuge, and the like. D. Give the things pertaining to the result of the things prepared. M. As when he is called Exultation, Joy, and other similar things. But all things pertaining to operation are recognized not only in his names, but also in notable events or similar revelations.

[4] D. Is divine operation made known only in these ways? M. There is another figurative mode, when from human operations divine operation is pointed out. D. In how many ways does it occur? M. In two, when either the things which belong to our mind are figuratively said to be in God, such as rage and anger and consciousness and regret, or those things which are treated in regard to the body or through the body, e.g., feet, hands, fingers. For occasionally even human operations are transferred to God, as when it is said, "Take up your weapons and shield" (Ps 34[35]:2). All these things nevertheless ought to be joined to the four aforesaid kinds of operation in keeping with the nature of the sentiments.

20. In how many ways is God indicated from comparison to creatures?

D. In how many ways is God indicated from comparison to creatures? M. In two, by acknowledgment and by negation. By acknowledgment, on the one hand, when those things are said about God which in the same way do not suit any creature, e.g., Simple, and Ancient of days, and Spirit before all things, i.e., uncircumscribed, and the First and the Last, and the like. For all these things are said about God, therefore, because they do not suit any creature in comparison with him. Through negation, on the other hand, comparison is made when, by means of privative prefixing, those things are denied in God which are in a creature, e.g., Unbegotten, Incorporeal, Uncreated, Immortal, Incorruptible, Incapable of passion, and the like.

[2] D. What then? are these words never said about a creature? M. Indeed they are said, but not in the same respect. For when a human being is called simple, it is not because he is not compounded (for it is characteristic of God alone to be simple essence), but a human being is called simple because he does not employ the double-dealing of deceit. So, too, when something is called invisible, it is not because it cannot be seen by anyone insofar as it exists (for this is characteristic of God alone), but because it escapes the notice of others. Similarly, too, the rest.

[3] D. Which comparative things are there that are so said about God that they cannot be said about a creature? M. The things which in him are perfect and unique, such as Unbegotten, Sempiternal, Without beginning, and the like.


1. What does Scripture indicate concerning the present world?

D. Because it has been sufficiently told in how many ways Scripture speaks about God, now I require the things which Scripture indicates when speaking about the present world. M. Some five: either (1) its generation, i.e., creation, or (2) its government, or (3) things accidental to natures, or (4) things coming about because of acts of will, or (5) things consequent as a result of will.

2. How many ways and differences Scripture has set down in the operation of creatures.

D. In how many ways has Scripture indicated the generation of the world? M. In three. For it is written either (1) that something was made by God's will alone, e.g., "In the beginning God made heaven and earth" (Gn 1:1). Or (2) by will and word together--either of command, e.g., "Let light be made" (Gn 1:3), and, "Let a firmament be made" (Gn 1:6), or of deliberation, e.g., "Let us make man in our image and likeness" (Gn 1:26). Or (3) by will, word, and decree, e.g., "Grow and multiply, and fill the earth" (Gn 1:28). And again, "Let the earth bring forth vegetation bearing seed according to its own kind, and the fruit- bearing tree producing fruit, whose seed in it in its likeness on earth" (Gn 1:11), and the rest of the things which after the seventh day, even to the end of the world, he is accomplishing in stages. For from that decree they come forth.

[2] D. Is there any difference in these three? M. There is, because those things which were made by will alone or also by word were made for the first time, but those things which by decree are by now similar to those things which we said were made for the first time. And again, the former indeed in the first six days; but the latter as long as the world endures.

[3] D. Give the order of the things made during the six days. M. Indeed in the very beginning of creation there were made heaven, earth, the angels, air, and water. D. Prove that the angels, and water, and air were made. M. Indeed that they were made is shown from different passages of Scripture, for example, "who makes the winds his angels" (Ps 103[104]:4), and, "Praise him, all you his angels" (Ps 148:2), and, "Let the waters which are above the heavens praise the name of the Lord, because he spoke, and they were made" (Ps 148:4,5). And air is shown in Scriptures by the term 'sky,' for instance, "the birds of the sky" (Ps 8:9), since it is certain that birds fly in air. Heaven, moreover, we have shown was made. But that those things preceded the rest of the creatures even Scripture demonstrates in the angels, inasmuch as in praises and blessings they are preferred to the remaining creatures, and reason does also; for it had to be that heavenly creation preceded the earthly ones. But concerning the waters Scripture itself says that "The spirit of God moved over the waters" (Gn 1:2).

[4] D. Go through the order of creation. M. In the beginning, on the first day, light was made, but on the second the firmament, on the third the sea and the produce of the earth, on the fourth the lamps of heaven, on the fifth the fish and the birds, on the sixth the remaining animals and the human being.

[5] D. What difference is there in the operation of the creatures themselves? M. The fact that certain ones were made from nothing, such as heaven, earth, and the other things which right until the completion of the first day we said were made, but certain things were made from the things already made on the first day. D. Give proofs of these. M. That as often as Scripture desires to show that things were made from something, either it openly indicates it, for example, "Let the earth bring forth" (Gn 1:11), and, "Let the waters bring forth" (Gn 1:20), and the like, or at least from the subtle meaning of words, as when it says, "Let there be a firmament" (Gn 1:6), it certainly indicates that there was something fluid and liquid, i.e., the waters, and in order that they might be shown to have been solidified, that which was being made was called the 'firmament.' [5b] And again, it called those things which were made on the fourth day 'lamps' [luminaria], in a derivative fashion, in order that it might show that they were made from light [lumen], which was made on the first day. But among these things which were made on the first day, neither openly nor by subtle word is it declared that anything was made from another. D. Then is nothing after the first day shown to have been made from non-existent things? M. Only the soul of the human being, in the case of whom even this should be marked: that, although other things were made either from nothing or from the things already made, the human being alone is compounded of both.

[6] D. What other differences do we ascribe to creatures? M. That those things which were made within the first six days came forth not naturally nor from likeness; but the rest, which are made naturally, originate from divine decree, except of course for miracles.

[7] D. Give the third difference. M. That some of the creatures, i.e., the rational ones, were made for the sake of themselves, such as angels and human beings. But the rest are acknowledged to have been made not for the sake of themselves, but for the sake of the aforementioned angels or human beings. But the human being should be understood to have been made principally, in view of his soul, for his own sake; for in view of his body, consequentially. D. But what? beyond human beings and angels, were not other creatures in need of themselves in turn? M. Certainly they were in need, not for utility, but for adornment, for they are beneficial, not to themselves, but to angels or humans, for whom they are acknowledged indeed to have been made. [7b] But they also, in their turn, afford adornment; to be sure, even heaven was unadorned, without celestial lamps, and the lamps themselves, lest they might become superfluous, needed the eyes of beholders; and the sea was unadorned until it either received its own place or was filled with living beings; and the earth was unadorned, except for the use of its inhabitants, i.e., native beings; and irrational animals were lacking in judgment without the guidance of the human being; and grass, since the animals' use of it was nonexistent, was superfluous. Thus all things in turn were in need either of these that were made during the six days or these that daily are made. But, as we have already said, it is possible for one thing to be unadorned, another thing beneficial: for it is declared that anything unadorned in itself is beneficial to another. [7c] D. In adornment itself is there any difference? M. There is. For some things were adorned in six days, like heaven with its lamps, and earth with grass, and with fish the sea. Certain things are being adorned so long as the universe is alive, like the sea with ships, and the earth with buildings, and the other things that are built by human ingenuity, and the human being himself with knowledge. But certain things will in the future acquire their own embellishment, as the body its incorruptibility, and mortal things immortality, and the heavenly kingdom its habitation by the saints. But in the matter of the adornments it should be noted that of those things which are made by genius or arts the cause is in the human being, but of the rest, in God.

[8] D. Give the fourth difference. M. That certain things emerged created at the same time and as it were suddenly, such as those things that we said were made within the first days, i.e., the grass, lamps, fish and birds, and also the animals and quadrupeds of the earth. But certain things were made not at the same time, but as it were with a certain delay, as the sea, the earth, the human being; for even he is written to have been made gradually, just as even the rest.

[9] D. Give the fifth difference of creatures. M. That certain of them surpass the rest in reason, such as the rational beings; but certain things are considered for use, as the heavenly lamps; certain things are subservient by necessity of nature, as the birds and quadrupeds, and the like.

[10] D. Give the sixth difference. M. That those which surpass the rest, i.e., the rational beings, are moved by will and reason, but those which are subservient by use or necessity are moved by nature. D. Those things which have been made from something--how many materials have they had? M. Six: earth, waters, air, fire, light, rib. D. Give their origins in each case. M. From the earth: greenery, plants, and animals; from the waters: firmament, sea, fish, and birds; but together from earth, water, fire, and air: all things that are renewed through successive generations; from light, the lamps; from rib, Eve. D. How is fire proved to have been made, or from where, or when? [10b] M. Indeed that it was made we can prove even from general Scripture, when it is said about God, "who made heaven and earth, the sea, and everything which is in them" (Ps 145[146]:6), because certainly fire, too, is in them, and from a specific declaration: "Praise the Lord from the earth, you sea-monsters, and all you depths, fire, hail, snow, ice, storm winds" (Ps 148:7,8), about which it had previously said, "because he spoke, and they were made" (Ps 148:5). And again: "Bless the Lord, all you works of the Lord" (Dn 3:57), and he added, "Bless the Lord, you fire and heat" (Dn 3:66). But whether fire was made from nothing (just as even other things were) or from something is unresolved. For many people maintain that it is a particle of the heavenly lamps, for to be sure now frequently we have seen that human beings by a certain method borrow fire from the rays of the sun; if this is so, then it was made on the first day. But Scripture more wisely called this 'light' rather than 'fire,' in order that it might receive a name from a better use.

[11] D. Give the seventh difference of creatures. M. That all things which were made from something, or from which some things were made, are corporeal. But some things are incorporeal, neither themselves made from another nor from themselves. But these should be taken as incorporeal not as God is said to be incorporeal, for in comparison with him nothing is incorporeal, just as it is neither immortal nor invisible. For there is one way in which these words suit divinity alone, another way in which it speaks about creatures, such as souls or angels.

[12] D. How is God said to have worked in six days, and rested on the seventh day, if he neither works when he does something so that rest may be thought to be necessary for him, nor at any time does he cease, the Lord saying in the Gospel, "My father works until now, and I work" (Jn 5:17)? M. On the seventh day God is said to have rested, not from creating, inasmuch as daily from his dispensation and providence all creation is renewed or maintained, but this has been indicated: that after those six days he created no kind of substance unknown to the world, or nature new and untried. D. Can we ask in what way God made the world? M. This is asked more foolishly than prudently. For it is not permitted to a human being to perceive the method of any divine creation; for if someone knew in what way any things were made from nothing, surely he would have been equal to the Creator in knowledge and power.

3. Concerning these things which pertain to the government of the world.

D. Because it has been suitably handled concerning the creation of the world, it remains that we ask, In how many ways is its government indicated? M. In two: for either it is general or particular.

[2] D. Which is the general? M. That through which those things that have been made remain in existence according to the manner in which they were made; this is indicated whenever it is said, "God saw that it was good" (Gn 1:4,10,12,18,21,25), and, that "they were very good" (Gn 1:31) and "he blessed them" (Gn 1:28); this even blessed David shows, saying, "He spoke, and they were made; he commanded, and they were created. He established them for ever and ever; he imposed his rule, and it will not pass away" (Ps 148:5,6).

[3] D. Which is the particular government? M. That through which individual things are governed by God, and especially rational beings, such as is the command in paradise concerning the tree (Gn 2:16,17). For just as divine power maintains all creatures in order that they remain in existence, so even rational beings it instructs on diverse occasions in order that they may prosper.

4. In how many ways does general government occur?

D. Into how many kinds is general government divided? M. Into two: for either it is maintained by successive generation or by permanent condition. By successive generation, as human beings or cattle, and the rest which, perishing by death or disease, are renewed by the similarity of those born anew. But by permanent condition, as those things which, not subject to such natural effects, obey cosmic motions, like heaven, the sun, stars, or the rest.

[2] D. What is another difference in these? M. That those things which are preserved by renewal need also certain remedies, food and rain, sometimes even the services of angels, and the other similar things. But those things which subsist not through successive generation, without some such mediation are divinely governed. But whether among them, too, anything is done through the service of angels is a separate and difficult question.

5. In how many ways particular government occurs.

D. In how many ways does particular government occur? M. In three: for either it is done by God in behalf of angels and humans, or by angels for the sake of themselves and humans, or by humans for their own sake. D. How is it done by God in behalf of angels and human beings? M. Through lawgiving.

6. Concerning lawgiving and its differences.

D. Into how many parts is lawgiving divided? M. Into two: into natural discernment and into law externally ordained. D. Prove that natural discernment is said to be a law. M. The Apostle says that "the gentiles, who do not have the law, by nature do the things which pertain to the law; these men, although not having the law, are themselves a law for themselves" (Rom 2:14). According to this even Cain was guilty of killing his brother. D. Into how many parts is externally established law divided? M. Into two: into deeds, i.e., repayment for acts, and into words.

7. Concerning law through deeds.

D. In deed, through how many ways? M. Through four: either (1) through general reward for the present, such as is the coming forth of fruits and breezes, or (2) through particular reward for the present, such as is Abraham enriched among foreigners or Noah preserved in the flood, or (3) through general visible punishment, such as is a general famine or drought, or (4) through a particular one, as Cain's or Saul's punishment. For all these things, in the manner of the law, instruct angels and human beings; to be sure, the devil's downfall thoroughly frightened and strengthened even the angels, although it should be thought that angels are taught in one way, humans in another. D. What is the intention of the entire lawgiving? M. In the discernment of good and evil, which is recognized either in teaching, i.e., the Faith, or in acts.

[2] D. Why have we said that punishments and rewards for the present are the law? M. Because they are the very things which instruct in place of the law. For future and eternal things will benefit neither those suffering nor perceiving, when there is no longer a time for repentance. D. Through which agents is this government read in the Scriptures to have been done? M. Sometimes God through himself, as when he commanded Adam not to touch the tree; sometimes through the angels, as the Apostle declares, "if the word spoken through the angels proved to be valid" (Heb 2:2). And again, the firstborn of Egypt are said to have been snuffed out by the hand of an angel (Ex 12:29). Or through humans, as for example through prophets. Or through beasts, as for example through serpents in the desert (Nm 21:6), and the like. For, moreover, by means of these things--a certain substantial and material law, so to speak-- prevents the evils because of which are inflicted, and it impels toward the good things the reward for which it urges.

8. Concerning law through words.

D. Into how many parts is the law established in words divided? M. Into two: for it commands something either immutable or temporary. D. How many are the classes of the immutable? M. Two: love of God and love of neighbor. D. Into how many parts are the temporary commands divided? M. Into two: for either they have been kept for a long time, such as circumcision, or for a short time, such as the gathering of the manna.

[2] D. What second difference of laws is there? M. That either they command something, as, "Honor your father" (Ex 20:12), or forbid something, as, "You shall not kill; you shall not commit adultery" (Ex 20:13,14).

[3] D. Give the third difference. M. That some things are beneficial in themselves, others are necessary because of those. D. Which are those beneficial in themselves? M. Love of God and neighbor. D. Which are those necessary because of others? M. For example, "You shall not kill," for love of brother is driven out by murder; and the keeping of the Sabbath, for in its observation there is the commemoration of God's rest from the work of creations, in which celebration the love of God as Creator was being pointed out.

[4] D. Give the fourth difference. M. That certain commandments were so to speak physical, as concerning clean and unclean animals, and leprosy, and the like. Certain were spiritual, as, "You shall not hate your brother in your heart" (Lv 19:17).

[5] D. Give the fifth difference. M. That certain commands belong specifically to the Old Testament, such as concerning the year of jubilee (Lv 25:8-17); certain ones, specifically to the New, such as, "Thus you shall pray, 'Our Father, who art in heaven'" (Mt 6:9); certain are common to both, such as, "You shall love the Lord your God" (Dt 6:5; Mt 22:37; Mk 12:30; Lk 10:27).

[6] D. Give the sixth difference. M. That some commands are understood just as they sound, such as, "You shall not commit adultery" (Ex 20:14); but others not as they sound, for example, "When you give alms, let not your left hand know what your right is doing" (Mt 6:3).

[7] D. Give the seventh difference. M. That the transgression of some commandments is severely punished, as for example, "An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" (Lv 24:20); for some it has no punishment, such as the eating of the priestly bread by him who was not a priest (1 Sm 21:6[7]; Mt 12:4); but of others the transgression is even praiseworthy, as for example, "if I have repaid evils to those rendering evils to me" (Ps 7:5). For the law at that time used to command that evils be redressed with evils. Therefore contempt for the law is found to be praiseworthy.

[8] D. Give the eighth difference. M. That some commandments pertain to faith, others to morals, of which the subdivision is acknowledged as quite extensive.

9. Concerning angelic government.

D. How does the government of angels for the sake of themselves and humans occur? M. Openly indeed it is not written in Scripture; nevertheless, since in it there are said to be ranks and orders of angels, and running about for the sake of human life, such as in behalf of Tobit and Daniel and others, without a doubt it is indicated that they govern tasks enjoined on them in the world, by which in obeying the Creator they have regard even for their own interests, and for the interests of humans in providing for the administration of those tasks.

10. Concerning human government by human beings.

D. In how many ways does the government of human beings for their own sake occur? M. In three: for either some one of men busies himself in behalf of the state, such as a king, or in behalf of his home, such as the head of a household, or in behalf of himself, as does any monk or destitute person.

[2] D. Does government suit no other creatures? M. Indeed it suits them all, for it suits all according to their nature, as for example the Creator granted a certain discretion, as is read, "I wanted to gather your children together, as a hen her chicks" (Mt 23:37), and the like. But neither the intention of Scripture is to teach thoroughly and subtly about irrational beings nor is there a desire of those making progress in it to waste time in investigating these things.

11. Concerning things accidental to nature.

D. Because enough has been said concerning the government of the world, which things are accidental to natures? M. Indeed, nothing is accidental to divine nature, for since it is incomprehensible, and always keeping itself in the same condition, it does not admit a diversity of accidents. D. Which things at least are accidental to creatures? M. To stand still, such as for the earth, and according to Scripture to be moved by heaven, such as for fire, and waters, and the rest of the things which come forth. Then there is time, place, number. For all things began even at some time, and are in some place, and are one or many. Likewise, are accidental: being engendered, being destroyed, health, sickness, beauty, position, capacity for arts and sciences. Likewise, growing, being nourished, feeling, living, dying, differing among themselves, and being antagonistic. In addition, rank, attainment, connection, and things similar and contrary to these; nor yet are all accidental to every single .

12. Concerning things accidental to free will.

D. Because enough has been said concerning the accidents of natures, now you must speak about things accidental to free will. What is free will? M. The inviolable or spontaneous force of the soul, according to which diverse and contrary thoughts and deeds are effected. D. Is this power natural in us or spontaneous? There is a certain natural discernment of good and evil in us; but spontaneous is the movement in these things which, having already been discerned, must be carried out. Indeed, law instructs itself, but grace prepares it, helps it, strengthens it, and crowns it.

13. Concerning the consequences from the occurrence of free will.

D. What are the consequences of free will? M. Some four. For in this life either (1) good things happen to the good and evil things to the evil, such as the prosperity of Abraham (Gn 13:6) and the punishment of Cain (Gn 4:11), or (2) conversely, good things to the evil and evil things to the good, such as the rich man who in the Gospel is described as happy right up to his death (Lk 16:19,20); in contrast, Lazarus is racked with sores and poverty. Or (3) really, neither the good nor the evil have either form of retribution: for example, for selling Joseph (Gn 50:21) no vengeance is inflicted upon his brothers. Nor, although he may be praised by God when giving his advice for guiding the people, does the father-in-law of Moses perform for any pay (Ex 18:17-27).

[2] D. What do we say are the causes of this inconsistency? M. Here, appropriate things are repaid to some people, lest the universe be thought to be guided not by divine providence but by chance occurrences, in order that together both an abundance of good things may console the good and the punishment for similar things may deter the wicked. Or indeed, happiness is allowed to the wicked, in order that the good may be tested and may learn to despise those things which they see are shared by them with unworthy people; and likewise, bad things happen to good people. Or here, no semblance of compensation is granted to either class, in order that elsewhere we may be able to get to know judgment and full retribution for our acts.

[3] D. Give the fourth way. M. When those who have done neither any evil by themselves nor any good share in good things or bad things, such as infants; or perhaps in neither, such as stillbirths, concerning both the condition and the worthiness of whom both the case is subtle and the treatment is uncertain.

14. Concerning these things which pertain to the future world.

D. Because we have finished all the parts of the principles concerning the present world, what things do we believe pertain to the future? M. Some four. For either (1) there is acceptance, or calling, or (2) figure, or (3) prediction, or (4) effect, or outcome, of things predicted.

15. Concerning acceptances.

D. What do we call acceptance, or calling? M. That, of course, by which God deigns to unite to himself certain persons or peoples by the favor of a special grace, and shows more divine indulgence and as it were familiar favors with regard to them than with regard to the other human beings.

[2] D. How many acceptances are there? M. Ten. D. Give the order of the acceptances. M. First is that of blessed Abraham; second, of Isaac; third, of Jacob and the twelve patriarchs born from him; fourth, of the tribe of Judah; fifth, of his entire people in Egypt; sixth, of holy David; seventh, of the very house of David and through it the entire tribe of Judah; eighth, of the return of his people from captivity; ninth, of our Lord Jesus Christ according to the flesh which the Son of God, upon coming, took for himself from the line of David, and through it from Abraham and even from Adam he provided for the salvation and forgiveness of us all; tenth, of all the nations through the dispensation of the very incarnation of our God and Savior.

[3] D. What then? were there not persons just and pleasing to God before Abraham? M. There were indeed, inasmuch as those who had been engendered from Seth were called "sons of God" (Gn 6:2), and Enoch was translated (Gn 5:24), and Noah became the renewer of a perishing world (Gn 6-9), and Melchizedek the model of the high priest (Gn 14:18). But in these persons divine acceptance, i.e., that special familiarity and partiality, is not shown, but their righteousness is declared. But God's frequent address to Abraham and as it were intimate association, and management through individual things, the promised rewards of the testing, and the remembrance of his posterity show the astonishing power of divine acceptance (Gn 12-22). Similarly, too, with regard to the other persons mentioned above, a certain particular favor of divinity, in other words an openly managed direction as if through individual acts of life, declares the extraordinary help of grace.

[4] D. Why do we say that these things pertain to the future world, although they were carried out in the present one? M. Because each and every thing is perceived from its effect, and that which is the intention of the doer is the cause of the deed. D. Prove that the causes of these acceptances look to the future. M. The faith of the nations follows the Christian religion because of the hope of eternal life. For Christ the Lord himself by the entire remedy of his teaching and the miracles of his acts, and also by his resurrection and ascension, taught the future life, promised it, proved it, granted it. Who is now ignorant of the other acceptances, effected on account of the Lord and his covenants, if he is promised to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob to be going to bestow salvation upon the nations? [4b] On account of him the seed of Abraham is separated from the other nations; on account of him the tribe of Judah both excels in blessing and is led into captivity last and saved first, because from it the Lord deigned to have taken flesh, so that from that tribe all Jews were named. He is again promised to David and his house and tribe to be going to reign forever from his seed (2 Sm 7:11-16; Ps 88[89]:20-38). Therefore if the faith of the nations was carried out because of the future life, the incarnation of Christ carried out because of the nations, the rest carried out because of Christ's incarnation, it is inferred from the intention itself that every series of acceptances pertains to the future world. But all these things are easily proved even from the proofs of the New and of the Old Testament, since they are scattered throughout.

16. Concerning types.

D. What is a type? M. That which we call a figure, or form, as for example the Apostle says, "For all things happened to them by way of a figure" (1 Cor 10:11). And again, "Adam, who is the form of the one to come" (Rom 5:14). Nor indeed is it beside the point that some one thing is indicated by many terms. D. What then is a type, or figure? M. The manifestation of unknown things, present, or past, or future, through deeds (in view of the fact that they are deeds).

[2] D. Give the types of past things. M. For example, the lowliness of the catechumens. For they bear the type of Adam, shut out of paradise and from an awareness of his sins fearing the divine gaze, because of which they walk even in public with heads covered.

[3] D. Give in present things. M. For example, Aaron's robe, which bore the names of the twelve tribes engraved in stones (Ex 28:9-12), showing that he so to speak was supplicating on behalf of all the people.

[4] D. Give concerning future things. M. In these there is no difficulty; still, from an overabundance, as for example the two Testaments were shown in the case of the two sons of Abraham (Gal 4:24).

[5] D. Since we have said that there is almost the same definition even concerning prophecy, what is the difference? M. That in prophecy by means of words (in view of the fact that they are words) future things are indicated; but events are declared in types from events. Nevertheless, these two can be so confused in definition that we say that prophecy is a type in words, in view of the fact that there are words, and conversely, a type is a prophecy in events, to what extent the events are recognized to exist.

17. Concerning the differences of types.

D. How many kinds of types, or figures, are there? M. Principally, four. For either the pleasant are indicated by the pleasant, or the sad by the sad, or the pleasant by the sad, or the sad by the pleasant.

[2] D. Give examples for the individual kinds. M. The pleasant indeed are indicated by the pleasant, as for example our Lord's resurrection according to the flesh and his dwelling in heaven is a form of our resurrection and evidence of future dwelling in heaven for the righteous, as for example the Apostle says, "For you have died, and our life has been hidden with Christ in God" (Col 3:3).

[3] But sad are prefigured by sad, as the casting down of the devil and his angels and the promise of their future punishment is a figure of those who because of a similarity of deeds will be thrust down by similar punishments; as for example even blessed Peter employs the same form to deter sinners, saying about God that even "the angels when they sinned he did not spare, but to the underworld of darkness he handed them over" (2 Pt 2:4).

[4] The third kind is when pleasant things are indicated with sad, as for example the transgression of Adam was a type of the justice of our Savior, as the blessed Apostle teaches that "just as by the disobedience of one man the many were established as sinners, so also by the obedience of one man the many will be established as just. For death reigned from Adam up to Moses even over those who did not sin in the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a form of him who was to come" (Rom 5:19,14), i.e., a type. For in the Greek "type" is specifically read. Therefore the grace of the second Adam, i.e., Christ, was a form, or type, of Adam's transgression, depicted of course by the opposite.

[5] The fourth kind is when sad things are depicted with pleasant things, as baptism is a figure of the death of our Lord, as for example the Apostle says, "For as many of you as have been baptized have been baptized in the death of Jesus" (Rom 6:3). For what is either more pleasant than baptism, where we are cleansed from sin and by which we become children of God, or sadder than death, to which he, too, who had been about to take it upon himself voluntarily, nevertheless sadly came?

[6] D. What other things are accidental to types? M. The difference of times. For certain things are before the Law, as the killing of Abel by his brother was prefiguring Christ's passion (Gn 4:8), and Noah's ark the Church (Gn 7:7), and the other things similar. But certain things are under the Law, as the death of Moses himself and the glory of Jesus. Certain things are under Grace, as the garments of the baptized, and the robes of the priests, and the sharing in the Lord's body (1 Cor 10:16), and other individual things; to show all these things by types pertains not to the teaching of principles, but to the exposition of the text.

[7] D. For what reason do we say that figures, or types, pertain to the future world? M. Because, on the one hand, figures of the Old Testament look to the New in intention; the New, on the other hand, promises the happiness of the future life; and thus all things from their very intention run toward the hope of the future world.

18. Concerning predictions.

D. Because we have spoken of the principle of types, let us see about predictions. What is prediction? M. The manifestation of future undetermined events by means of words (to what extent they are words).

[2] D. What things are accidental to predictions? M. Principally, three: that certain things were before the Law, certain things under the Law, certain things under Grace.

19. In how many ways were predictions made before the Law?

D. Before the Law in how many ways were predictions made? M. Five. Either (1) generally, such as, "Therefore a man will leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife, and the two will be in one flesh" (Gn 2:24; Mt 19:5). And again, "Cursed is the earth in your works" (Gn 3:17). For this, through one human being, is acknowledged to have been foretold for the whole human race. Or (2) in part, or by half, "I will multiply your sorrows, and you will bring forth children in sorrow; and your turning will be toward your husband, and he will have dominion over you" (Gn 3:16). For this was said not to the whole human race, but to all women. Or (3) individually, for instance, "And Adam called the name of his wife Eve, because she is the mother of all the living" (Gn 3:20). [1b] Or (4) in regard to the beginning of the Old Testament, for example, "Cursed be Canaan; he will be a slave to his brothers" (Gn 9:25). Or (5) in regard to the New Testament chiefly; for when it is said, "Let us make man in our image and likeness" (Gn 1:26), and, "Come, let us go down and confound their tongues" (Gn 9:7), the plural number is evidence of the Trinity, which is more openly proclaimed by the New Testament. And when it is said, "The blood of your brother cries aloud to me from the earth" (Gn 4:10), the passion of our Lord is foretold, the Apostle being witness in the Letter to the Hebrews (Heb 12:24): that the sprinkling of Christ's blood was more able to cry aloud to God for us than the blood of Abel had cried aloud against his brother.

20. In how many ways under the Law were predictions made?

D. Under the Law, in how many ways were predictions made? M. In two. Either in regard to these events which happened under the Law or in regard to these which happened under Grace.

21. How many predictions are there in regard to things done under the Law?

D. In regard to these things which happened under the Law, how many kinds of predictions do we find? M. About twenty-two. For either (1) the increase of the people is foretold, such as to Abraham, "And you will be as a great and strong nation" (Gn 12:2). Or (2) a promise of inheritance, such as, "To your seed I will give this land" (Gn 12:7). Or (3) the separation of the unworthy, such as, "Cast out this slave-girl and her son, for the son of the slave-girl will not be heir with the son of the free woman" (Gal 4:30 < Gn 21:10). Or (4) punishment for enemies of the people, and reward for friends, for instance, "I will bless the ones blessing you, and curse the ones cursing you" (Gn 12:3). Or (5) the liberation of the people from their enemies, such as, "Your seed will be foreign in a land not their own, and . . . they will go out from there with a great deal of baggage" (Gn 15:13,14), etc. [1b] Or (6) the generations and names of some persons, such as Isaac (Gn 17:19) and Samson (Jgs 13:7-24). Or (7) the loftiness of descendants, as, "Kings will stem from you" (Gn 17:6). Or (8) the manner of one's end, for example, "And you will go to your fathers peacefully, nourished in a good old age" (Gn 15:15). Or (9) the difference in peoples, e.g., "One people will surpass the other, and the elder will serve the younger" (Gn 25:23). Or (10) abundance, such as, "God will give you from the dew of heaven, and from the fatness of the earth, abundance of grain and wine" (Gn 27:28). Or (11) divine assistance, such as, "See, I am with you, guarding you on the whole journey" (Gn 28:15). Or (12) the choosing of the priesthood, or educated class, such as, "I will divide them in Jacob, and will scatter them in Israel" (Gn 49:7). [1c] Or (13) the strength and immutability of inheritance, such as, "Judah, the lion's whelp; from a shoot, my son, you have grown up; reclining you have slept like the lion, and like the lion's whelp; who will rouse him?" (Gn 49:9). Or (14) the plan of life, such as, "Even Zabulon himself as a traveler will inhabit the ports of ships" and "knowing rest, that it is good" (Gn 49:13,15), etc. Or (15) transgression, as it is said, "For I know that after my death you will do wickedness, and will turn aside from the way which I have commanded you" (Dt 31:29). Or (16) punishment, such as, that "Evils will come upon you in the latter times" (Dt 31:29). Or (17) a general expulsion, as it is said, that "They have angered me with their gods, and have provoked me with their idols, and I will anger them for a non-people, I will hand them over for a foolish people" (Dt 32:21). Or (18) the result of virtue and its reward, e.g., "Lord, who will dwell in your tent, or who will rest on your holy mountain? He who walks without stain, and does justice" (Ps 14[15]:1,2), etc. [1d] Or (19) a kind of punishment, such as, "Gad came to David and announced, saying to him, 'Choose to happen for you either famine for three years over the earth, or to flee for three months from the face of your enemies pursuing you, or for three days for a pestilence to happen in your land'" (2 Sm 24:13). Or (20) signs, such as, "And this will be a sign to you, that God has anointed you ruler over his heritage" (1 Sm 10:1), and the rest. Or (21) the choosing of a prophet, such as, "And you, child, will be called the prophet of the Most High" (Lk 1:76). D. Give the predictions (22) about the nations in regard to the people. M. For example, "his hand upon everyone, and everyone's hand upon him" (Gn 16:12), and, "Arise and leave this place, because the Lord will destroy the city" (Gn 19:14).

[2] Visions, too, of Nebuchadnezzar and Pharaoh, and of other kings or nations told by prophets, refer indeed to the nations' affairs; nevertheless, the intention looks toward the people, in regard to whose punishing individual things came forth.

22. Concerning predictions under the Law in the matter of Christ.

D. How many are the kinds of predictions in the matter of Christ? M. About twenty-six. Either (1) concerning his conception and name, for example, "See, a virgin will conceive a son in her womb and will bear him, and they will call his name Emanuel" (Is 7:14; Mt 1:23). Or (2) concerning the place of his birth, such as, "And you, Bethlehem, city of Judah, are in no way least among the cities of Judah, for from you will come forth a leader who will rule my people Israel" (Mt 2:6 < Mi 5:2). Or (2) in regard to these things that he carried out in his early training, for example, "before the child knows how to recognize evil and to choose good" (Is 7:16). Or (3) concerning his justice and judgment, such as, "You have loved justice and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness above your fellow kings" (Ps 44[45]:8). [1b] Or (4) concerning his divinity, such as, "Who will recount his generation?" (Is 53:8). Or (5) concerning the visitation of his human assumption, for example, "What is man, that you are mindful of him? or the Son of Man, that you visit him?" (Ps 8:5). Or (6) in regard to the unity of godhead and human flesh, e.g., "A child is born to us; a son has been given to us" (Is 9:6), and afterwards it has added, "God the Mighty" (Is 9:6). Or (7) concerning his power and kingship, e.g., "And I have been established as king by him over Zion, his holy mountain" (Ps 2:6). Or (8) concerning the smashing of his enemies, for instance, "You have cast all things under his feet" (Ps 8:8). Or (9) concerning his education, e.g., "Handsome in beauty are you above the sons of men" (Ps 44[45]:5). Or (10) concerning the benefit of his education, for example, "because of truth, and clemency, and justice" (Ps 44[45]:5). [1c] Or (11) in regard to wonderful deeds, for example, "And your right hand will conduct you wondrously" (Ps 44[45]:3). Or (12) concerning the glorification which he justly receives from the faithful, e.g., "Therefore the peoples will praise you for ever and ever" (Ps 44[45]:18). Or (13) concerning the pronouncing of praise, for instance, "O Lord, our Lord, how wonderful is your name in all the earth!" (Ps 8:2). Or (14) concerning priesthood, e.g., "You are a priest forever" (Ps 109 [110]:4). Or (15) concerning his judgment and justice, for example, "in the radiance of holiness" (Ps 109[110]:3); and again, "He will do judgment on the nations, he will pile up corpses, he will smash heads in the land of many" (Ps 109[110]:6). Or (16) concerning the toils of his life, e.g., "From the brook by the wayside he will drink" (Ps 109[110]:7). Or (17) Scripture indicates the mystery of the incarnation which is pleasing to the Father, e.g., "Here is my servant, dear to me, in whom my soul has been well pleased" (Is 42:1; Mt 3:17; Lk 3:22). [1d] Or (18) the imbuing with the Holy Spirit, which surely humanity, having been assumed by him, merited either in the beginning of his incarnation, or in his increase, or in his baptism, or in his wonderful deeds, or in his teaching, or in his resurrection, such as, "I will put my Spirit upon him" (Is 42:1; Mt 12:18), and, "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me; therefore he has anointed me" (Is 61:1; Lk 4:18), and the rest. Or (19) his care with regard to his disciples, e.g., "He will not speak nor cry aloud, nor will anyone hear his voice in the streets" (Is 42:2; Mt 12:19). Or (20) his sitting upon the beast of burden, such as, "Do not fear, O daughter Zion, see, your king has come, sitting upon the foal of an ass" (Zec 9:9; Mt 21:5). [1e] Or (21) his sufferings and burial and their causes, as it is said, "We saw him, and he did not have beauty nor grace, but his appearance was unhonored, inferior to all men"; and again, "a man of sufferings, and knowing how to bear baseness, because his face was hidden and despised, and he was valued at naught. He carries our sins, and for us he grieves; and we have thought that he is sorrowful and stricken and afflicted. But he was wounded for our iniquities and he was weakened for our sins" (Is 53:2-5). Or (22) the dividing of his garments, as, "They divided my garments for themselves, and over my robe they cast lots" (Ps 21[22]:19; Mt 27:35; Jn 19:24). Or (23) it indicates the resurrection of the Lord, as, "You will not abandon my soul in the nether world, nor will you let your Holy One see corruption" (Ps 15[16]:10; Acts 2:31). Or (24) the calling of the Son in accordance with his assumption of humanity, such as, "Out of Egypt I called my son" (Hos 11:1; Mt 2:15). Or (25) the generation of his divinity before the beginning, such as, "From the womb before the daystar I begot you" (Ps 109[110]:3). Or (26) his second coming, such as, "See, one like the Son of Man on the clouds of heaven" (Dn 7:13).

[2] D. Are all the predictions understood about our Savior alone? M. We usually take them in two ways. For certain things have been so foretold in reference to his Person that they cannot suit another, as for example it is read, "The prince from Judah will not fail, nor a ruler from his thigh, till he come for whom things have been set aside" (Gn 49:10). But certain things are said under the occasion of the person of another, and yet they look to Christ in meaning, for example: "In you and in your seed, all the nations of the world will be blessed" (Gn 22:18 or 28:14).

23. Concerning predictions pertaining to the calling of the nations under the Law.

D. Because we have examined the predictions spoken about Christ in the old Law, give those which have been set down about the calling of the nations. M. About the calling of the nations we hear that predictions have been set down in about seventeen ways. For (1) sometimes they indicate the calling of these when it is said, "I will provoke them for a non-people; I will anger them for a foolish nation" (Dt 32:21). Sometimes (2), their infirmities, the forgiveness of their sins, and the teaching of better conditions, when it is said, "He has sent me to bring good news to the poor, to proclaim release to the captives, and vision to the blind" (Is 61:1); sometimes (3), a favor which they received, either of adoption or of wonderful deeds, when it is said, "There are daughters of kings in your honor; the queen has stood at your right hand" (Ps 44[45]:10). Sometimes (4), a warning, such as that which follows, "Hear, O daughter, and see, and incline your ear, and forget your people" (Ps 44[45]:11). [1b] Sometimes (5), glorification, which we owe to Christ, when it is said, "for He is the Lord your God, and you shall worship him" (Ps 44[45]:12). Sometimes (6), happiness and virtue, which the faithful merit, when it is said, "Her maidens will be brought to the king after her" (Ps 44[45]:15). Sometimes (7), the gladness in which they are, seeing their own progress, when it is said, "They will be brought in with joy and exultation" (Ps 44[45]:16). Sometimes (8), priesthood and ecclesiastical service, when it is said, "in place of your fathers sons have been born to you" (Ps 44[45]:17). Sometimes (9), the spiritual edification of the Church, when it is said, "From ivory halls, from which they delighted you" (Ps 44[45]:9). Sometimes (10), ecclesiastical authority, when it is said, "You will make them princes over all the earth" (Ps 44[45]:17). Sometimes (11), abundance of believers, when it is said, "All the earth shall be filled with his glory! May it be! May it be!" (Ps 71[72]:19). [1c] Sometimes (12), the enduring of either trial or persecution, when it is said, "until he lead forth justice in victory, and the nations will hope in his name" (Is 42:4). Sometimes (13), destruction of enemies, when it is said, "And his foes will lick the dust" (Ps 71[72]:9). Sometimes (14), peace in which the Church rejoices after persecutions, when it is said, "In his days justice will arise, and abundance of peace, till the moon be taken away" (Ps 71[72]:7). Sometimes (15), the errors of heretics, and the presence of Elijah, when it is said, "See, I am sending you Elijah the Tishbite, and he will call back the hearts of the fathers to their children" (Mal 4:5,6[3:23,24]). Sometimes (16), the hope of the faithful and the second coming of the Savior, when it is said, "And he will be the expectation of the nations" (Gn 49:10). Sometimes (17), John's baptizing, when it is said, "See, I am sending my messenger before your face" (Mal 3:1).

24. Concerning the kinds of predictions which have been given in Grace.

D. Because we have spoken of the kinds of predictions which are in the Law, give those which are read to have been uttered in Grace. M. The kinds of predictions which have been made in Grace are discovered to be thirty-two. For either (1) the begetting and life of John the Baptizer is foretold, as is that whole speech by the angel to his father Zechariah, and the prophecy of Zechariah himself (Lk 1:13-17,68-79). Or (2) the extraordinary conception and birth of the Savior, as is the prediction which the angel spoke to holy Mary (Lk 1:28-37) and the revelation of the magi (Mt 2:1-12), or (3) the unbelief of the Jews and their conversion, as for example it is said, "See, he has been destined for the downfall and the rise of many in Israel, i.e., a sign for contradicting" (Lk 2:34). Or (4) the reward of the heavenly kingdom, as for example, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand" (Mt 3:2), and the rest. [1b] Or (5) the calling of the nations, as for instance it is said, "Many will come from the east and from the west, and will feast with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven" (Mt 8:11). Or (6) the exclusion of the Hebrews, for example as follows, "But the children of this kingdom will be put forth into the darkness outside" (Mt 8:12). Or (7) salvation through the preaching of the apostles, as when it is said, "Come, follow me; I will make you fishers of men" (Mt 4:19). Or (8) the glory of wonderful deeds, as it is said, "He who believes in me, the works that I do he also will do, and greater than these he will do" (Jn 14:12). Or (9) the trial and persecutions of the righteous, as it is said, "For they will deliver you up to councils, and scourge you in their synagogues" (Mt 10:17), etc. Or (10) the bearing up of the faithful against adversity, as when it is said about the Church, "And the gates of hell shall not prevail against it" (Mt 16:18). And again, "The kingdom of heaven endures violence, and the violent seize it by force" (Mt 11:12). [1c] Or (11) the contemplation of the heavenly kingdom and of the second coming, which even in this life the souls of the saints thoroughly enjoy, for instance, "For the Son of man will come with his angels in the glory of his Father, and then he will render to each one according to his works. And I say to you that there are some of those standing here who will not taste death, till they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom" (Mt 16:27,28). Or (12) the retribution of the good or the bad, as when it is said, "And these will go into everlasting punishment, but the just into everlasting life" (Mt 25:46). Or (13) the assistance of the Holy Spirit given to the apostles, such as, "I will ask my Father, and he will send you another Helper, to dwell with you forever, the Spirit of truth" (Jn 14:16,17). [1d] Or (14) the authority of the Church is foretold, as for example it is said, "And I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatever you bind on earth will be bound also in heaven" (Mt 16:19). Or (15) the death, passion, and resurrection of the Savior, as for instance it is said, "From that time Jesus began to show his disciples that it was necessary for him to go to Jerusalem, and to suffer many things at the hands of the elders and chief priests, and to die, and on the third day to rise again" (Mt 16:21). Or (16) the general resurrection, as when the Apostle says, "Just as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made to live" (1 Cor 15:22). Or (17) Christ's and our resurrection together, as for instance it is said, "When I am lifted up from the earth, I will draw all to myself" (Jn 12:32). Or (18) the betrayal of Judas, as for instance it is said, "Did I not choose you twelve, and one of you is a devil?!" (Jn 6:71). [1e] Or (19) the manner of trial and death of some disciples, as for example the Lord foretold to Peter both his future denial and form of suffering, saying, "Before the cock crows, three times you will deny me" (Mt 26:34), and, "When you are old you will stretch forth your hands, and another will bind you, and lead you to where you do not wish" (Jn 21:18). Or (20) the presence of the arresters of Christ, when he says, "Rise, let us go; see, he who betrays me is at hand" (Mt 26:46). Or (21) the scattering of the apostles, as for example, "I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered" (Mt 26:31; Zec 13:7). Or (22) the finding of the ass's foal, which the Lord predicted in the Gospel was to be brought by his disciples (Mt 21:1-3). Or (23) the presence of the Antichrist, as when it is said, "Let no one deceive you in any way, since unless the schism comes first, and the man of sin is revealed, the son of perdition, who opposes" (2 Thes 2:3,4). [1f] Or (24) the presence of Elijah, when it is said, "Elijah will come first" (Mt 17:11). Or (25) the awareness of the elect, as concerning Paul, "this man is a chosen vessel to me" (Acts 9:15). Or (26) some are foretold as not going to be changed, but to be going to taste death, as for example the Apostle, "See, I tell you a mystery: we will all indeed rise, but we will not all be changed" (1 Cor 15:51). Or (27) a famine to come, as for instance the prophecy of Agabus (Acts 11:28). Or (28) the contrariety of heresies, as for instance it is said, "But know this, that in the last days terrible times will come" (2 Tm 3:1). And again, "There will be a time when they will not be satisfied with sound doctrine, but according to their own desires they will seek teachers for themselves" (2 Tm 4:3). Or (29) the grace of baptism, such as, "He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire" (Mt 3:11). [1g] Or (30) the destruction of Jerusalem and the Jewish temple, as for example, "Pray that your flight not be in winter or on the Sabbath" (Mt 24:20), and, "See, your house shall be left to you desolate" (Mt 23:38). Or (31) the preaching of the Gospel, as for instance it is said, "And the Gospel of the kingdom will be preached in all the world for a witness to all the nations; and thus will be the end" (Mt 24:14). Or (32) the evils of the very end together with the very end, as when it is said, "Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will darkened" (Mt 24:29). D. In what way do we say that these predictions pertain to the future world? M. Just as we have spoken about acceptances: that the intention of those things which were foretold before the Law was toward the times of the Law and of Grace; and again, the things which were foretold in the Law were depicting Grace, and the things which in Grace had the reason and reward of the heavenly kingdom. Thus the whole intention of predictions is concluded to look to the good things of the future world.

25. Concerning the effects of predictions.

D. Because we have already shown three parts of those that we said pertain to the future world, i.e., acceptances and figures and predictions, now the fourth part remains, that we treat of effects. What then are effects? M. Effects are the outcomes of events which either the intention of acceptances was looking forward to, or the comparison of types was depicting, or the science of predictions was foretelling.

[2] D. How many are the times of effects? M. Three. For either the things that were being foretold were effected during the time of the Law, or now are happening under Grace, or are to be accomplished in the future world.

26. What reason there was for making the present world.

D. If all things which have been done in the present world were looking toward the future, what need was there that the present world be made by God? M. Because it was fitting that rational creatures first learn, and be challenged by uncertainties, and then later on enjoy eternal things; and that, rightly, eternal things seem to have been given to those who had been tested; and that the eternal things become more enjoyable to those recalling past struggles; and that the creatures glorify more the giver who both aided the pious in this world in order that they might conquer and granted eternal rewards to the victors.

27. Concerning the education of rational beings in this world.

D. In how many ways is the education of rational beings accomplished in this world? M. In two. Either by the understanding of things done, as for example the Apostle says that "From the creation of the world his invisible are seen, understood by the things which have been made" (Rom 1:20). For it is necessary that he who reflects on the world and everything placed in it, distinguished in kinds and classes, understand that God exists, who both made these things and governs them. Or from divine Scripures, which (as we have said) are divided into four kinds: historical, prophetic, proverbial, and plainly didactic.

28. What things should be observed in the understanding of the Scriptures?

D. What are the things which we should be careful of in the comprehension of the divine Scriptures? M. That those things which are spoken be suitable for the speaker; that they not differ from the reasons for which things have been said; that they agree with the times, places, arrangement, intention.

[2] D. What do we say is the aim of divine teaching? M. That which the Lord himself said, that we love the Lord with our whole heart, and with our whole soul, and our neighbors as ourselves (Dt 6:5; Mt 22:37,39). But the corruption of his teaching is, on the contrary, not to love God or neighbor. D. What is the cause of this contrariety? M. The cause of evils is in those who are evil, because when in chaotic fashion rational creatures use their free will well granted by God, they have been the cause of both wickedness and punishment for themselves.

29. From what source are the books of the catholic claimed to be?

D. Whence do we prove that the books of our religion have been composed with divine inspiration? M. From many things, first of which is the truth of Scripture itself. Second, the arrangement of the material, the harmony of the precepts, the manner of speaking without circumlocution, and the plainness of the words. In addition, there is the condition of the writers and preachers: that humans would not have handed down godly things, humble persons lofty things, inarticulate persons subtle things, unless they had been filled with divine inspiration. Third, the power of the preaching, which gained the world, although it was preached by a few despised people.

[2] In addition to these, there is the evidence of opponents, for example, prophets and philosophers; the expulsion of adversaries, the benefiting of its followers, the outcomes of those things which were predicted through acceptances and figures and predictions. Finally, the wonderful things continually done until the Scripture itself was taken up by the nations, concerning which this now suffices to the nearest degree as a miracle: the fact that Scripture is understood to have been taken up by everyone.

30. Where faith is necessary to religion.

D. But if divine Scriptures are sufficient for proofs, why is faith necessary for religion? M. Our faith is indeed above our reason; nevertheless, it is not thoughtlessly and irrationally adopted: those things which reason teaches faith understands; and where reason lags behind, faith runs ahead. For we do not believe things heard from whatever source, but those things which reason does not disprove. But those things which reason cannot fully catch up with we acknowledge with a faithful wisdom.