[[1]] The best and most recent works to consult on these forms of protective magic are: C.A. Faraone (1992); J. Gager (1992), Chapt. 7: "Antidotes and Counterspells"; R. Kotansky (1991) and R. Kotansky (1994). Numerous papyru s amulets are translated in H.D. Betz (1986) and R.W. Daniel & F. Maltomini (1990 & 1992). See also the older C. Bonner (1950), on magic gems.


[[2]] Such practices did not end in antiquity. C. Bonner (1946), 26-7, reports that earlier in the century, "Small bags taken from the necks of child-patients in a hospital in Egypt were found to contain such oddments as the dried head of a hoop oe, a dried chameleon, the cast skin of a snake, other unrecognizable debris of vegetable or animal origin, pebbles, etc." These items were sent to the Kelsey Museum at the University of Michigan.



For full bibliographical citations and a table of abbreviations, click here.