| CCT 510: Globalization
in a Post-Sept. 11 World
Professor Martin Irvine
This module will be conducted like a short seminar with weekly contributions
from students. We'll explore three aspects of globalization, culture,
and communication, but we won't be driven by thematic unity or the need
for harmonizing approaches or kinds of theory. We'll study: the networks
of cultural, material, and technological capital in global cities as one
way to define globalization, the globalization of communications through
the Internet and the way Internet infrastructure maps onto globalization,
issues arising from international and global visual culture and the visual
Students will work together in groups of 3 outside class and prepare
group presentations based on the week's readings for beginning each class
meeting. The presentation will involve the group's own approach to a research
topic. Presentations must be in Powerpoint or Web/HTML pages. Each presentation
will be limited to 20 minutes with discussion of the presentation in the
context of the weeks readings and in the context of new information discovered
through students' own research.
For a concluding final
project for the module, students will develop an individually researched
"globalization portfolio" on a topic of personal interest that addresses
the one of the themes of the module. Grades will be based on classroom
participation, the group presentation, and the final project.
Week 1: Introduction, discussion of intro readings.
Continuing Interpretation and Response to Introductory Readings
Readings from introductory week:
- Benjamin Barber, "Jihad
vs. McWorld," Atlantic Monthly, March, 1992. [Original essay
version of his argument before the book, Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism
and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballentine Books,
- -----. "Beyond
Jihad vs. McWorld," The Nation, Jan. 3, 2002. [Barber's
- Samuel P. Huntington, "The
Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs Summer 1993,
72/3. [Original version of the argument before the book, The Clash
of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order. New York:
Touchstone Books, 1996.]
- -----. "The
Clash of Ignorance," The Nation, Oct. 4, 2001. [Critique
Continuing Background Readings:
- Manuel Castells, The Information Age, Vol. 1. The rise of the network
society. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 1996, pp. 1-18;
- Douglas Kellner, UCLA, "Theorizing
Globalization," (2002 paper).
- Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire
text in .pdf). Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 2000. [Another
Read 1.1, 1.3, 2.5, 3.4, 3.6.
- Michael Mann, "Globalizations:
an introduction to the spatial and structural networks of globality,"
(2002, Dept. of Sociology, UCLA, author's website). [Another copy here.]
- Saskia Sassen, "The
Global Economy: its necessary instruments and cultures," Telepolis,
to Topics in this Module (Lecture Notes)
Assignment for week 1: read and capture the foundational assumptions,
premises, and presuppositions, not simply the details of the content.
What problems do you see in any of the assumptions and analyses?
For first class meeting: Bring notes on readings to class. Focus on readings
in "Theorizing Globalization(s) section above" but read as much
background as possible. Introductory discussion on issues using the resources/references
for framing the problem in this week's readings.
- Multiple views of globalization(s): complexities, contradictions,
- How do nation-states enact globalization?
- Views of "American Empire"
- "Clash of civilizations" theory and evidence
- Clash of discourses, theories, agendas.
Week 2: Group 1 Group 2
Globalization theories: focus on the "networked cities"
and megacities viewpoints
- Saskia Sassen, "Urban
Economies and Fading Distances," Megacities Foundation, Megacities
- -----. "Introduction: Locating Cities on Global Circuits," from Saskia
Sassen, ed. Global Networks, Linked Cities. NY: Routledge, 2002.
pp. 1-36. [EReserves]
- -----. Globalization and its discontents: Essays on the New Mobility
of People and Money. New York : New Press, 1998, "Introduction".
- Manuel Castells, The Information Age, Vol. 1. The rise of the network
society. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 1996. From Chap.
6, "The Space of Flows," 376-418. [EReserves]
- P.J. Taylor, "Worlds
of Large Cities: Pondering Castells' Space of Flows," Globalization
and World Cities Study Group, Research Bulletin, 14 (1999).
- S. Krätke and P.J. Taylor, "A
World Geography of Global Media Cities," Globalization and
World Cities Study Group, Research Bulletin, 96 (2002). [Be sure to
see the tables after the bibliography.]
- P.J. Taylor, M. Hoyler, D.R.F. Walker and M.J. Szegner, "A
New Mapping of the World for the New Millennium," Globalization
and World Cities Study Group, Research Bulletin, 30 (2001).
- J.V. Beaverstock, R.G. Smith and P.J. Taylor, "A
Roster of World Cities," Globalization and World Cities Study
Group, Research Bulletin, 5 (1999).
- Use the readings above, and refer to data and studies on world development
issues from the UN, World Bank, OECD, and other sources for the empirical
and quantifiable data on Arab-Islamic world connection of disconnection
from the global cities network. (See links to data sources on the 510
- Can globalization be described as the social, political, and economic
effects of global cities? Is globalization mainly a network of urban
agglomerations, leaving rural and developing regions outside the network,
off the grid? Which cultures/nations have produced global cities and
- Are the actions now symbolized by 9/11 in part a revolt against global
cities? (Secular, urban, international, decentralized and networked,
IT and media-based, contemporary/real-time, transnational.) Islamic
extremists identify with an imagined past (an agrarian, pre-industrial,
pre-global-city past), an imagined transnational, a-national, present-day
community, a historical but almost timeless identity. Is this a culture
clash producing the current outcomes?
- Discuss the significance of most Arab and Islamic nations being "off
the grid" in terms of connectedness in global cities, and consequences
for being "off the grid" in the developing world. (Use real
data from the NGO sites.)
Cities: New Nodes
Week 3: Group 3 Group 4
Globalization, Technology, and Culture
UN finding: Only one percent of the 280 million people in the Arab world
use the Internet.
- What are the consequences of being "off the grid" in terms
of Internet access, communication and data flows?
- Is non-connectivity to the Internet also, or simply, a symbol of a
Is the "digital divide" technological, or political-economic
- Infrastructure concentration and investment
- Ownership and telecom regulation
- Education and access
- Cultural barriers to access
- Manuel Castells, The Internet Galaxy: reflections on the Internet,
business, and society. Oxford : New York : Oxford University Press,
2001. Chap. 8. "The Geography of the Internet: Networked Places," pp.
207-246. [Library EReserves]
Study some of the data and research sites below for empirical information
about the global usage, distribution, and concentration of Internet infrastructure:
Internet Routing and Internet Topology Visualization Tools
- How does the Internet map onto globalization? Does Internet topology
and architecture follow the global cities pattern of asset concentration?
- What are the consequences of being off the grid in Internet access
and interconnectivity with the world?
- Which regions have the highest concentrations on Internet infrastructure
- Is the so-called "digital divide" an extension or replication
of pre-digital divides?
- To what extent does the Internet promote globalization? What are the
counterbalancing forces of concentration and disaggregation? Does the
Internet provide a way for remote and developing regions to participate
in global information and communications?
- Paradox of Al Qaeda and Islamic militants in lesser connected regions
using the Internet to communicate. Compare differences among developing
regions in Internet connectivity and usage. Compare this data to Asian
Week 4: Group 5 Group 6
Globalization, Culture, and The Visual Arts
For this week, we will investigate some major intersecting issues that
are often treated independently:
- Culture and political economy, or the various world cultures and their
economic systems. There are challenges in this type of analysis: some
may jump right away to causal relationships or binary oppositions and
miss the complexity of historical, cultural, and economic factors in
world cultures. But we can't avoid the fact that economic development
and the UN's "human development" criteria map onto world cultures
today in specific ways. Consequences?
- The question of cultures that accept varying degrees of complexity,
ambiguity, and diversity, and those that do not. A subtopic to this
question is the use of war and aggression in democratic or "open"
societies vs. closed, totalitarian, or theocratic-fundamentalist societies.
- The cultural and economic issues in the new World Trade Center design
and rebuilding Lower Manhattan
- Looking at symbolism, memory, politics, and economics in the WTC
- What is being communicated to the world through the new WTC and
- Globalization and the international art world
- What is happening in the trend toward internationalizing the art
- Art and the International Art Fair (Biennials, the art market,
and large commercial art fairs)
- International professionalization of the art world: curators,
dealers, auction house specialists all part of international
- Art now requires an international market of galleries, collectors,
- Do the centers of artworld prestige, influence, and power map
onto the "world cities" cluster?
- Major city concentrations and power centers: following resource
concentration and cultural economy of cities
- Does art follow the same concentrations of capital? Are there
discontinuities and disruptions? Plurality of voices, local
- Case study: Julie Mehretu, an "international" artist
with critical and commercial success. Works at ArtBasel/Miami. Walker
Art Center traveling exhibition. Smithsonian African Museum.
Globalization, Economic Development, and Culture
- Lawrence Harrison, "Why Culture Matters," Introduction to
Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress, ed. Lawrence
Harrison and Samuel Huntington (New York: Basic Books, 2000), xvii-xxxiv.
- -----. "Promoting Progressive Cultural Change," Culture
Matters, 296-307. [Library EReserves]
- Ronald Inglehart, "Culture and Democracy," Culture Matters,
80-97. [Library EReserves]
- Hernando de Sota, The Institute for Liberty and Democracy (ILD, Lima,
Hidden Architecture of Capitalism." [Short article from Time
- -----. The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the
West and Fails Everywhere Else. New York, Basic Books, 2000. Chap.
1 available online. [Not specifically about globalization, but a
pragmatic view of economic development and cultural barriers at a basic
- Compare de Sota's optimism with Joseph
Stiglitz's views in a UNESCO interview. (Stiglitz, author of Globalization
and its Discontents, and former chief economic advisor to Clinton
and chief economist of the World Bank, now exposes the contractions
and hypocrisy in the IMF and global financial policy.)
Other Useful Data Resources:
Cultural Symbolism in Architecture: The Case of the World Trade Center
Design and 9/11 Memorial
See the articles on the 510
Readings page for the WTC Design and Memorial in Lower Manhattan
Globalization and the International Art World
Case Study: Julie Mehretu
- Walker Art Center, Julie Mehretu: Drawing into Painting (Minneapolis:
Walker Art Center, 2003)
Wrap up, synthesis, discussion of individual projects
Projects are due the Friday after the last class meeting of our module.
Projects must be submitted in digital form to the Blackboard Digital
Drop Box for this section.