Robustness Checks

Sample of World Bank Countries Only 2

Only countries that at some point experienced UNCHR Resolution 5

Lean Specifications 8

Additional Variables 10

Less Stringent Definition of Shaming 15

Levels as Dependent Variable 19

Treatment Effect Models 24

Not Logarithmically Transformed 25

Regression that Includes the Year Before the Adoption of a UNCHR resolution (variable help) 28

 

 


Sample of World Bank Countries Only

 

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      1548

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        84

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

avg =      18.4

max =        24

 

LR chi2(13)        =    918.59

Log likelihood  = -929.30006                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

 

BIPOP       Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>z     [95% Conf. Interval]

 

BIPOP

L1.    .5913229   .0255464    23.15   0.000     .5412528     .641393

PUBRES    .0294953    .062539     0.47   0.637    -.0930789    .1520695

HRIGHTS

D1.   -.0193743   .0173447    -1.12   0.264    -.0533693    .0146208

L1.   -.0087878   .0187519    -0.47   0.639    -.0455409    .0279653

CIVIL

D1.   -.0065509   .0195636    -0.33   0.738    -.0448949     .031793

L1.   -.0156439   .0126027    -1.24   0.214    -.0403447    .0090569

GDPPOP

L1.   -.0230868   .0273001    -0.85   0.398     -.076594    .0304203

LNPOP

L1.   -.1697114   .0261519    -6.49   0.000    -.2209681   -.1184547

USAGREE

L1.   -.3810333   .1511413    -2.52   0.012    -.6772648   -.0848017

WAR   -.0506737   .0350255    -1.45   0.148    -.1193225    .0179751

CAPAB   -.5077303   .4055382    -1.25   0.211    -1.302571    .2871099

linear   -.0053508   .0011397    -4.69   0.000    -.0075846    -.003117

quad    .0001031   .0000881     1.17   0.242    -.0000696    .0002757

_cons    4.455095   .5244602     8.49   0.000     3.427172    5.483018

 

/sigma_u     .231234   .0302043                      .1790052    .2987017

/sigma_e    .4197828   .0079599                      .4044681    .4356775

rho    .2327917   .0483742                      .1492088    .3374124

 

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=   53.85 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel replace

 

.

.

. xtreg MUPOP l.MUPOP PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE     WAR       CAPAB  linear quad   ,      mle    i(CCODE)

 

Fitting constant-only model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -2550.7241

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -2138.4832

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -1956.9306

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -1880.5742

Iteration 4:   log likelihood =  -1848.848

Iteration 5:   log likelihood = -1837.8581

Iteration 6:   log likelihood = -1835.4136

Iteration 7:   log likelihood = -1835.2039

Iteration 8:   log likelihood = -1835.2015

 

Fitting full model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -1568.0168

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -1548.9685

Iteration 2:   log likelihood =  -1547.195

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -1547.1852

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -1547.1852

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      1548

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        84

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

avg =      18.4

max =        24

 

LR chi2(13)        =    576.03

Log likelihood  = -1547.1852                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

 

MUPOP       Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>z     [95% Conf. Interval]

 

MUPOP

L1.    .4294259   .0271678    15.81   0.000     .3761781    .4826737

PUBRES   -.2289996   .0915431    -2.50   0.012    -.4084209   -.0495784

HRIGHTS

D1.    .0118401   .0259432     0.46   0.648    -.0390076    .0626878

L1.   -.0075861   .0277188    -0.27   0.784    -.0619141    .0467418

CIVIL

D1.    .0151407   .0292915     0.52   0.605    -.0422696     .072551

L1.    .0198902   .0182777     1.09   0.276    -.0159335    .0557138

GDPPOP

L1.   -.2522468   .0391429    -6.44   0.000    -.3289654   -.1755281

LNPOP

L1.   -.3080473   .0340447    -9.05   0.000    -.3747737   -.2413209

USAGREE

L1.    .3508426   .2208645     1.59   0.112    -.0820438     .783729

WAR   -.0822254    .051827    -1.59   0.113    -.1838043    .0193536

CAPAB   -.0465294   .5240722    -0.09   0.929    -1.073692    .9806332

linear   -.0020552   .0016279    -1.26   0.207    -.0052458    .0011355

quad   -.0003514    .000132    -2.66   0.008    -.0006101   -.0000927

_cons    7.936859   .6839569    11.60   0.000     6.596328    9.277389

 

/sigma_u    .2877119   .0347576                      .2270527    .3645767

/sigma_e    .6308252   .0117974                      .6081212    .6543767

rho    .1721967   .0355322                      .1115217    .2506121

 

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=   76.01 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

 

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =      1548

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        84

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.3968                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.6896                                        avg =      18.4

       overall = 0.6110                                        max =        24

 

                                                F(13,1451)         =     59.90

corr(u_i, Xb)  = -0.9335                        Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       BIPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |

         L1. |   .4838974   .0272554    17.75   0.000     .4304331    .5373617

      PUBRES |   .0583649   .0665037     0.88   0.380    -.0720887    .1888186

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -.0245305   .0176124    -1.39   0.164    -.0590789     .010018

         L1. |  -.0195373   .0189384    -1.03   0.302    -.0566869    .0176123

       CIVIL |

         D1. |  -.0052917   .0185912    -0.28   0.776    -.0417602    .0311768

         L1. |  -.0195648   .0145483    -1.34   0.179    -.0481027    .0089731

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.0823161   .0475029    -1.73   0.083    -.1754979    .0108657

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -1.033554   .2635181    -3.92   0.000    -1.550472   -.5166372

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   -.492723   .1654176    -2.98   0.003    -.8172063   -.1682397

         WAR |  -.0662455   .0371572    -1.78   0.075    -.1391332    .0066421

       CAPAB |  -1.742526   1.809808    -0.96   0.336    -5.292646    1.807594

      linear |   .0035653   .0037492     0.95   0.342    -.0037891    .0109196

        quad |   .0000835   .0000958     0.87   0.384    -.0001044    .0002714

       _cons |   19.07819   4.339276     4.40   0.000     10.56627    27.59012

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  1.3490322

     sigma_e |  .41572266

         rho |  .91327135   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel replace

 

.

.

. xtreg MUPOP l.MUPOP PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB linear quad , fe i(CCODE)

> robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =      1548

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        84

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.2385                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.7748                                        avg =      18.4

       overall = 0.6181                                        max =        24

 

                                                F(13,1451)         =     23.65

corr(u_i, Xb)  = -0.7498                        Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       MUPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |

         L1. |   .3410703   .0311899    10.94   0.000     .2798882    .4022524

      PUBRES |  -.1761522   .1236265    -1.42   0.154     -.418658    .0663536

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |   .0045536   .0250379     0.18   0.856    -.0445607    .0536679

         L1. |  -.0226457   .0309252    -0.73   0.464    -.0833086    .0380171

       CIVIL |

         D1. |   .0118897   .0301695     0.39   0.694    -.0472908    .0710701

         L1. |   .0138939   .0215649     0.64   0.519    -.0284078    .0561956

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.2453977   .0836624    -2.93   0.003    -.4095099   -.0812856

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -.8122079   .4210143    -1.93   0.054     -1.63807    .0136539

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   .2381294   .2757397     0.86   0.388    -.3027617    .7790206

         WAR |  -.0922361    .055634    -1.66   0.098    -.2013678    .0168957

       CAPAB |   1.509661   1.805267     0.84   0.403    -2.031551    5.050872

      linear |   .0015715   .0060143     0.26   0.794    -.0102262    .0133692

        quad |  -.0003701   .0001683    -2.20   0.028    -.0007003   -.0000399

       _cons |   16.24981   6.964306     2.33   0.020     2.588623    29.91099

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |   .7480007

     sigma_e |  .62923104

         rho |  .58560135   (fraction of variance due to u_i)


Only countries that at some point experienced UNCHR Resolution

 

 

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =       576

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        29

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      19.9

                                                               max =        24

 

                                                LR chi2(8)         =   1024.84

Log likelihood  = -458.55414                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |

         L1. |   .6273513   .0467649    13.41   0.000     .5356937    .7190088

      PUBRES |  -.0626753    .063759    -0.98   0.326    -.1876407    .0622901

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.0065658   .0478205    -0.14   0.891    -.1002923    .0871607

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -.2199778   .0627823    -3.50   0.000    -.3430289   -.0969268

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   .0369811   .2910604     0.13   0.899    -.5334868     .607449

         WAR |   -.006328   .0584985    -0.11   0.914     -.120983    .1083269

      linear |  -.0008339   .0022636    -0.37   0.713    -.0052704    .0036027

        quad |  -.0000326   .0001777    -0.18   0.854    -.0003809    .0003156

       _cons |   4.734085   1.160192     4.08   0.000     2.460151     7.00802

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   .3732862    .085063                      .2388215    .5834591

    /sigma_e |   .5048085   .0158314                      .4747139     .536811

         rho |    .353505   .1081947                      .1719896    .5771401

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=    8.54 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.002

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel replace

 

.

.

. xtreg MUPOP l.MUPOP PUBRES l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR linear quad , mle i(CCODE)

 

Fitting constant-only model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -1092.4872

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -943.54088

Iteration 2:   log likelihood =  -796.4709

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -744.68261

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -729.62929

Iteration 5:   log likelihood = -725.26179

Iteration 6:   log likelihood =  -724.2484

Iteration 7:   log likelihood = -724.14941

Iteration 8:   log likelihood = -724.14791

Iteration 9:   log likelihood = -724.14791

 

Fitting full model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood =  -594.7561

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -589.74651

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -588.68326

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -588.66828

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -588.66828

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =       571

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        29

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      19.7

                                                               max =        24

 

                                                LR chi2(8)         =    270.96

Log likelihood  = -588.66828                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |

         L1. |   .5386352   .0435216    12.38   0.000     .4533344     .623936

      PUBRES |  -.2304289   .0793532    -2.90   0.004    -.3859584   -.0748994

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.2194746   .0520724    -4.21   0.000    -.3215346   -.1174146

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -.2882941    .056228    -5.13   0.000    -.3984989   -.1780893

     USAGREE |

         L1. |  -.1443479   .3581872    -0.40   0.687     -.846382    .5576861

         WAR |  -.1494266   .0737181    -2.03   0.043    -.2939115   -.0049417

      linear |  -.0020569   .0027603    -0.75   0.456    -.0074671    .0033533

        quad |  -.0002017   .0002302    -0.88   0.381    -.0006529    .0002495

       _cons |   7.308105   1.101566     6.63   0.000     5.149076    9.467133

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   .2930524   .0669555                       .187269    .4585901

    /sigma_e |   .6521685   .0202192                      .6137197    .6930261

         rho |   .1679951   .0659168                       .069896    .3271956

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=   17.92 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

. xtreg WBPOP l.WBPOP PUBRES dl.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR linear quad  , mle i(CCODE)

 

Fitting constant-only model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood =  -543.7396

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -519.04217

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -510.73615

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -508.21243

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -507.71671

Iteration 5:   log likelihood = -507.68274

Iteration 6:   log likelihood = -507.68249

 

Fitting full model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -486.52605

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -480.53365

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -478.24417

Iteration 3:   log likelihood =  -478.1881

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -478.18805

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =       358

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        21

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         3

                                                               avg =      17.0

                                                               max =        23

 

                                                LR chi2(8)         =     58.99

Log likelihood  = -478.18805                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       WBPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       WBPOP |

         L1. |   .3159033   .0549262     5.75   0.000     .2082499    .4235567

      PUBRES |  -.2152157   .1375322    -1.56   0.118    -.4847738    .0543424

      GDPPOP |

         LD. |  -.0568859   .2892597    -0.20   0.844    -.6238245    .5100526

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -.1478367   .1005619    -1.47   0.142    -.3449345    .0492611

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   .0733713    .645285     0.11   0.909    -1.191364    1.338107

         WAR |  -.3216812   .1231396    -2.61   0.009    -.5630304   -.0803321

      linear |   .0003995   .0051572     0.08   0.938    -.0097084    .0105074

        quad |  -.0001327    .000431    -0.31   0.758    -.0009775    .0007122

       _cons |   3.253985   1.657682     1.96   0.050     .0049891    6.502981

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   .5109419   .1138093                      .3301957    .7906272

    /sigma_e |   .8718115   .0339878                      .8076781    .9410374

         rho |   .2556628   .0877989                      .1166408    .4516073

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=   26.20 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

.

. xtreg BIPOP l.BIPOP PUBRES  l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR linear quad , fe i(CCODE)robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =       576

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        29

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.3249                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.0262                                        avg =      19.9

       overall = 0.0186                                        max =        24

 

                                                F(8,539)           =     23.98

corr(u_i, Xb)  = -0.4545                        Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       BIPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |

         L1. |   .5146476   .0569791     9.03   0.000     .4027193    .6265759

      PUBRES |  -.0994497   .0650193    -1.53   0.127     -.227172    .0282726

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |   .0285038   .0643287     0.44   0.658    -.0978619    .1548694

       LNPOP |

         L1. |   .7192552   .5463205     1.32   0.189    -.3539231    1.792433

     USAGREE |

         L1. |  -.2117786   .2433501    -0.87   0.385    -.6898094    .2662521

         WAR |  -.0251586   .0580015    -0.43   0.665    -.1390953    .0887781

      linear |  -.0132208   .0060024    -2.20   0.028    -.0250117   -.0014299

        quad |   .0000326    .000155     0.21   0.834    -.0002718     .000337

       _cons |  -10.16003   8.934186    -1.14   0.256    -27.71012    7.390065

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  1.4692343

     sigma_e |  .50136789

         rho |  .89569802   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel replace

 

.

.

. xtreg MUPOP l.MUPOP PUBRES  l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR  linear quad , fe i(CCODE) robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =       571

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        29

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.3150                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.8623                                        avg =      19.7

       overall = 0.6769                                        max =        24

 

                                                F(8,534)           =     17.88

corr(u_i, Xb)  = 0.6372                         Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       MUPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |

         L1. |   .4451484   .0481214     9.25   0.000     .3506179     .539679

      PUBRES |  -.2157095   .0920426    -2.34   0.019    -.3965195   -.0348994

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.1942097   .1204906    -1.61   0.108    -.4309034    .0424841

       LNPOP |

         L1. |   .0242282   .9452591     0.03   0.980    -1.832654    1.881111

     USAGREE |

         L1. |  -.0857355   .4768226    -0.18   0.857    -1.022414    .8509427

         WAR |  -.1841043   .0804426    -2.29   0.022    -.3421269   -.0260816

      linear |  -.0079344   .0117097    -0.68   0.498    -.0309371    .0150683

        quad |  -.0002637    .000312    -0.85   0.398    -.0008765    .0003492

       _cons |   2.326705   15.63411     0.15   0.882    -28.38519     33.0386

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  .68606318

     sigma_e |  .65085482

         rho |  .52631721   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

. xtreg WBPOP l.WBPOP PUBRES  l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR   linear quad  , fe i(CCODE) robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =       376

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        21

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.1383                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.4119                                        avg =      17.9

       overall = 0.2518                                        max =        24

 

                                                F(8,347)           =      5.90

corr(u_i, Xb)  = -0.5507                        Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       WBPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       WBPOP |

         L1. |   .2416877   .0687938     3.51   0.001     .1063824     .376993

      PUBRES |  -.1679106   .1240009    -1.35   0.177    -.4117986    .0759774

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.3029035   .1576974    -1.92   0.056    -.6130665    .0072595

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -.6234664   1.192937    -0.52   0.602    -2.969764    1.722831

     USAGREE |

         L1. |  -.1126849   .6432622    -0.18   0.861    -1.377868    1.152499

         WAR |  -.4372016   .1117595    -3.91   0.000    -.6570128   -.2173904

      linear |   .0054806   .0125081     0.44   0.662    -.0191206    .0300819

        quad |  -.0001127   .0003122    -0.36   0.718    -.0007268    .0005014

       _cons |    12.9695   19.60207     0.66   0.509    -25.58431    51.52331

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  .82113652

     sigma_e |   .8716575

         rho |  .47018183   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

---------------------------

Lean Specifications

 

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       BIPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |

         L1. |   .5201986   .0249766    20.83   0.000     .4712231    .5691741

      PUBRES |   -.061321   .0583773    -1.05   0.294    -.1757906    .0531486

      linear |   -.006011   .0008539    -7.04   0.000    -.0076853   -.0043367

        quad |  -.0001342   .0000624    -2.15   0.032    -.0002565   -.0000119

       _cons |   1.530168   .0838751    18.24   0.000     1.365701    1.694635

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  .58903443

     sigma_e |  .54471679

         rho |  .53902975   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel replace

 

.

.

. xtreg MUPOP l.MUPOP PUBRES  linear quad , fe i(CCODE) robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =      2779

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       134

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.1726                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.9640                                        avg =      20.7

       overall = 0.6308                                        max =        24

 

                                                F(4,2641)          =     90.51

corr(u_i, Xb)  = 0.7652                         Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       MUPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |

         L1. |   .3279964   .0267622    12.26   0.000     .2755194    .3804734

      PUBRES |  -.1865871   .0733649    -2.54   0.011    -.3304457   -.0427285

      linear |  -.0105201   .0011583    -9.08   0.000    -.0127913    -.008249

        quad |  -.0001423   .0000861    -1.65   0.099    -.0003112    .0000265

       _cons |   1.690118   .0720773    23.45   0.000     1.548784    1.831452

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |   .8700328

     sigma_e |  .72962067

         rho |  .58710547   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

. xtreg WBPOP l.WBPOP PUBRES  linear quad  , fe i(CCODE) robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =      1757

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        92

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.0098                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.6422                                        avg =      19.1

       overall = 0.1599                                        max =        24

 

                                                F(4,1661)          =      4.29

corr(u_i, Xb)  = 0.4995                         Prob > F           =    0.0019

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       WBPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       WBPOP |

         L1. |    .069536   .0329832     2.11   0.035      .004843    .1342291

      PUBRES |   -.320101   .1056711    -3.03   0.002    -.5273636   -.1128384

      linear |   -.001756   .0018894    -0.93   0.353    -.0054618    .0019498

        quad |  -.0000895   .0001503    -0.60   0.552    -.0003843    .0002053

       _cons |    1.14548   .0580769    19.72   0.000     1.031568    1.259391

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  .85914904

     sigma_e |  1.0438248

         rho |  .40385956   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

end of do-file

 

Additional Variables

 

 

.

. xtreg BIPOP l.BIPOP PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB COL RIVAL linear quad , ml

> e i(CCODE)

 

Fitting constant-only model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood =   -3530.04

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -2764.1825

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -2484.2435

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -2413.1399

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -2404.8861

Iteration 5:   log likelihood =  -2404.704

Iteration 6:   log likelihood = -2404.7039

 

Fitting full model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -1221.9045

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -1210.2184

Iteration 2:   log likelihood =  -1197.684

Iteration 3:   log likelihood =  -1194.347

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -1189.0805

Iteration 5:   log likelihood = -1188.5579

Iteration 6:   log likelihood = -1188.5468

Iteration 7:   log likelihood = -1188.5468

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      1518

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       115

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      13.2

                                                               max =        15

 

                                                LR chi2(15)        =   2432.31

Log likelihood  = -1188.5468                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |

         L1. |   .5005377   .0295899    16.92   0.000     .4425426    .5585328

      PUBRES |  -.1365498   .0756118    -1.81   0.071    -.2847461    .0116466

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |   -.012814   .0211018    -0.61   0.544    -.0541728    .0285448

         L1. |   .0211111   .0245202     0.86   0.389    -.0269477    .0691699

       CIVIL |

         D1. |  -.0328182   .0232646    -1.41   0.158    -.0784161    .0127796

         L1. |  -.0142589   .0163076    -0.87   0.382    -.0462212    .0177034

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.1514736   .0303406    -4.99   0.000    -.2109401   -.0920071

       LNPOP |

         L1. |   -.173321   .0353962    -4.90   0.000    -.2426963   -.1039456

     USAGREE |

         L1. |  -.0550489   .2155479    -0.26   0.798     -.477515    .3674172

         WAR |  -.1168866   .0436364    -2.68   0.007    -.2024124   -.0313609

       CAPAB |  -1.008581   .6430656    -1.57   0.117    -2.268967    .2518041

         COL |  -.0714812   .0871066    -0.82   0.412     -.242207    .0992445

       RIVAL |   .0071601   .0540464     0.13   0.895    -.0987688    .1130891

      linear |   -.018156   .0044839    -4.05   0.000    -.0269444   -.0093676

        quad |   .0005501   .0001917     2.87   0.004     .0001745    .0009258

       _cons |   5.449624   .6820868     7.99   0.000     4.112758    6.786489

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   .3967993   .0428949                      .3210362    .4904421

    /sigma_e |   .4862917   .0095846                      .4678644    .5054448

         rho |   .3996902   .0548282                      .2972397    .5095968

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=   71.25 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel replace

 

.

end of do-file

 

. do "C:\DOCUME~1\Faculty\LOCALS~1\Temp\STD02000000.tmp"

 

.

.

. xtreg MUPOP l.MUPOP PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB COL RIVAL linear quad , ml

> e i(CCODE)

 

Fitting constant-only model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -2762.4279

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -2155.8421

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -2001.0616

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -1935.7452

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -1910.9612

Iteration 5:   log likelihood =  -1904.039

Iteration 6:   log likelihood = -1903.0651

Iteration 7:   log likelihood = -1903.0332

Iteration 8:   log likelihood = -1903.0332

 

Fitting full model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -1729.3179

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -1722.7437

Iteration 2:   log likelihood =  -1702.626

Iteration 3:   log likelihood =  -1701.301

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -1701.2959

Iteration 5:   log likelihood = -1701.2959

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      1507

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       115

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      13.1

                                                               max =        15

 

                                                LR chi2(15)        =    403.47

Log likelihood  = -1701.2959                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |

         L1. |   .3719859   .0300608    12.37   0.000     .3130678     .430904

      PUBRES |  -.4044397   .1054236    -3.84   0.000    -.6110661   -.1978133

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |   .0260756   .0301771     0.86   0.388    -.0330704    .0852217

         L1. |   .0352322   .0342035     1.03   0.303    -.0318055      .10227

       CIVIL |

         D1. |   .0281462   .0331609     0.85   0.396    -.0368479    .0931403

         L1. |  -.0111621   .0220249    -0.51   0.612    -.0543301    .0320059

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.3673699   .0381161    -9.64   0.000    -.4420761   -.2926637

       LNPOP |

         L1. |   -.315972   .0413695    -7.64   0.000    -.3970548   -.2348892

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   .0810439   .3010573     0.27   0.788    -.5090176    .6711054

         WAR |  -.1084915   .0616145    -1.76   0.078    -.2292537    .0122707

       CAPAB |  -.0690136   .7165547    -0.10   0.923    -1.473435    1.335408

         COL |   .0335488   .0980469     0.34   0.732    -.1586196    .2257172

       RIVAL |   .0588211   .0711818     0.83   0.409    -.0806927     .198335

      linear |  -.0025481   .0063523    -0.40   0.688    -.0149984    .0099023

        quad |   -.000348   .0002785    -1.25   0.211    -.0008937    .0001978

       _cons |   8.940245   .8210136    10.89   0.000     7.331088     10.5494

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   .4211422   .0455361                      .3407158    .5205532

    /sigma_e |   .7008515   .0136877                      .6745312    .7281989

         rho |   .2652902   .0442937                      .1861914    .3585933

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=   77.20 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

. xtreg WBPOP l.WBPOP PUBRES d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB COL RIVAL linear quad  , ml

> e i(CCODE)

 

Fitting constant-only model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -1596.7332

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -1551.0246

Iteration 2:   log likelihood =  -1480.779

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -1469.1932

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -1468.6316

Iteration 5:   log likelihood = -1468.6286

 

Fitting full model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -1449.3471

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -1434.9083

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -1431.3857

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -1431.3349

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -1431.3349

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      1008

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        82

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         1

                                                               avg =      12.3

                                                               max =        15

 

                                                LR chi2(15)        =     74.59

Log likelihood  = -1431.3349                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       WBPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       WBPOP |

         L1. |   .1422395   .0364987     3.90   0.000     .0707034    .2137757

      PUBRES |  -.3953333   .1775091    -2.23   0.026    -.7432447    -.047422

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |   .0033466   .0493759     0.07   0.946    -.0934284    .1001216

         L1. |  -.0160305   .0551925    -0.29   0.771    -.1242059    .0921448

       CIVIL |

         D1. |   .0449543   .0536615     0.84   0.402    -.0602203     .150129

         L1. |   .0610018   .0359002     1.70   0.089    -.0093613    .1313648

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.4818784    .077852    -6.19   0.000    -.6344654   -.3292913

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -.1441732   .0591877    -2.44   0.015     -.260179   -.0281675

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   1.562944   .5213214     3.00   0.003     .5411728    2.584715

         WAR |  -.1462519   .1006397    -1.45   0.146    -.3435021    .0509984

       CAPAB |  -1.126208   .9530067    -1.18   0.237    -2.994067    .7416505

         COL |  -.1277587   .1511313    -0.85   0.398    -.4239705    .1684532

       RIVAL |   .1689062   .1160406     1.46   0.146    -.0585292    .3963416

      linear |  -.0104447   .0109397    -0.95   0.340    -.0318862    .0109968

        quad |   .0002495   .0004593     0.54   0.587    -.0006507    .0011498

       _cons |   5.850654   1.195065     4.90   0.000     3.508371    8.192938

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   .5283406   .0672082                      .4117522    .6779412

    /sigma_e |   .9399749   .0223839                      .8971113    .9848866

         rho |   .2400831   .0487744                      .1554142    .3450993

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=   58.51 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

.

. xtreg BIPOP l.BIPOP PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB COL RIVAL linear quad , fe

>  i(CCODE)robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =      1518

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       115

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.2558                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.5139                                        avg =      13.2

       overall = 0.4883                                        max =        15

 

                                                F(14,1389)         =     30.34

corr(u_i, Xb)  = -0.4880                        Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       BIPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |

         L1. |   .3453778   .0380049     9.09   0.000     .2708246    .4199309

      PUBRES |  -.1071032   .0939918    -1.14   0.255    -.2914844     .077278

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -.0147372   .0203822    -0.72   0.470    -.0547205     .025246

         L1. |   .0150831   .0257311     0.59   0.558     -.035393    .0655592

       CIVIL |

         D1. |  -.0215772   .0217534    -0.99   0.321    -.0642502    .0210958

         L1. |   .0048722   .0174837     0.28   0.781    -.0294251    .0391694

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |   .0055063    .058611     0.09   0.925    -.1094693    .1204819

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -.5582771   .4086796    -1.37   0.172    -1.359973    .2434187

     USAGREE |

         L1. |  -.2319564   .2447487    -0.95   0.343    -.7120734    .2481606

         WAR |  -.1199696    .043374    -2.77   0.006    -.2050551    -.034884

       CAPAB |  -1.855225   2.251321    -0.82   0.410    -6.271582    2.561131

         COL |  (dropped)

       RIVAL |   .0471466   .0511789     0.92   0.357    -.0532498    .1475429

      linear |  -.0176932   .0075131    -2.35   0.019    -.0324315   -.0029549

        quad |   .0005585   .0002013     2.77   0.006     .0001636    .0009535

       _cons |   10.94846   6.581243     1.66   0.096    -1.961793     23.8587

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  .87792632

     sigma_e |  .47955648

         rho |  .77019312   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel replace

 

.

.

. xtreg MUPOP l.MUPOP PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB COL RIVAL linear quad , fe

>  i(CCODE) robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =      1507

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       115

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.1519                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.3959                                        avg =      13.1

       overall = 0.3516                                        max =        15

 

                                                F(14,1378)         =     13.83

corr(u_i, Xb)  = -0.9188                        Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       MUPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |

         L1. |   .2204026   .0392622     5.61   0.000     .1433825    .2974227

      PUBRES |  -.4315153   .1260839    -3.42   0.001    -.6788524   -.1841782

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |   .0112416   .0276551     0.41   0.684     -.043009    .0654922

         L1. |   .0162593   .0368437     0.44   0.659    -.0560165     .088535

       CIVIL |

         D1. |   .0437461   .0334985     1.31   0.192    -.0219674    .1094596

         L1. |   .0186555    .025718     0.73   0.468    -.0317952    .0691062

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.2007536   .0952445    -2.11   0.035    -.3875935   -.0139136

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -1.825498   .6510589    -2.80   0.005    -3.102671   -.5483239

     USAGREE |

         L1. |  -.0324463   .3943406    -0.08   0.934    -.8060191    .7411266

         WAR |  -.0732403   .0662606    -1.11   0.269    -.2032227    .0567422

       CAPAB |   1.283828   2.059819     0.62   0.533    -2.756892    5.324548

         COL |  (dropped)

       RIVAL |   .0045474   .0849382     0.05   0.957    -.1620747    .1711696

      linear |   .0142376   .0109148     1.30   0.192    -.0071739     .035649

        quad |  -.0005887   .0002977    -1.98   0.048    -.0011728   -4.61e-06

       _cons |   32.03027   10.50835     3.05   0.002     11.41617    52.64436

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  2.3259635

     sigma_e |  .69112941

         rho |  .91887248   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

. xtreg WBPOP l.WBPOP PUBRES d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB COL RIVAL  linear quad  , f

> e i(CCODE) robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =      1008

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        82

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.0200                         Obs per group: min =         1

       between = 0.0474                                        avg =      12.3

       overall = 0.0256                                        max =        15

 

                                                F(14,912)          =      1.89

corr(u_i, Xb)  = -0.9005                        Prob > F           =    0.0245

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       WBPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       WBPOP |

         L1. |   .0174182   .0457046     0.38   0.703    -.0722802    .1071165

      PUBRES |  -.1024669   .1678425    -0.61   0.542    -.4318693    .2269356

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |   .0054787   .0525124     0.10   0.917    -.0975804    .1085378

         L1. |   -.004496   .0618122    -0.07   0.942    -.1258067    .1168148

       CIVIL |

         D1. |   .0593721    .058729     1.01   0.312    -.0558875    .1746318

         L1. |   .0736831   .0462452     1.59   0.111    -.0170763    .1644426

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.1476001   .1433069    -1.03   0.303    -.4288497    .1336495

       LNPOP |

         L1. |   1.069896   1.091286     0.98   0.327    -1.071827    3.211619

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   .5161871   .5577827     0.93   0.355    -.5784996    1.610874

         WAR |  -.1262109   .1123751    -1.12   0.262    -.3467549     .094333

       CAPAB |   .5453201   2.796932     0.19   0.845    -4.943851    6.034491

         COL |  (dropped)

       RIVAL |   .0010979   .1777377     0.01   0.995    -.3477246    .3499204

      linear |  -.0322317   .0200403    -1.61   0.108    -.0715623    .0070988

        quad |   .0004775   .0005011     0.95   0.341    -.0005059     .001461

       _cons |  -15.20634   17.60186    -0.86   0.388    -49.75121    19.33852

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  2.1332123

     sigma_e |   .9335127

         rho |  .83927713   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

Less Stringent Definition of Shaming

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      2324

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       118

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      19.7

                                                               max =        24

 

                                                LR chi2(13)        =   1108.19

Log likelihood  =  -1790.815                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |

         L1. |    .554355   .0216593    25.59   0.000     .5119035    .5968065

      PUBRES |  -.0027784   .0656392    -0.04   0.966    -.1314289    .1258722

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -.0380196   .0167464    -2.27   0.023    -.0708418   -.0051973

         L1. |  -.0195023   .0178239    -1.09   0.274    -.0544365    .0154319

       CIVIL |

         D1. |  -.0160492   .0193768    -0.83   0.408    -.0540271    .0219287

         L1. |  -.0211436   .0127202    -1.66   0.096    -.0460747    .0037874

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.1065845   .0250979    -4.25   0.000    -.1557755   -.0573934

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -.1609539     .03084    -5.22   0.000    -.2213992   -.1005085

     USAGREE |

         L1. |  -.1268544   .1448165    -0.88   0.381    -.4106896    .1569808

         WAR |   -.088721   .0344021    -2.58   0.010     -.156148   -.0212941

       CAPAB |  -.7611984   .6048036    -1.26   0.208    -1.946592     .424195

      linear |  -.0049632   .0011127    -4.46   0.000     -.007144   -.0027825

        quad |  -.0000438   .0000854    -0.51   0.607    -.0002112    .0001235

       _cons |   4.886358   .5678396     8.61   0.000     3.773413    5.999303

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   .3836965   .0381916                      .3156914     .466351

    /sigma_e |   .4907658   .0075684                      .4761539     .505826

         rho |   .3793683   .0486019                      .2886104    .4773396

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=  107.19 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel replace

 

.

.

. xtreg MUPOP l.MUPOP PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB linear quad , mle i(CCODE)

 

Fitting constant-only model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -4108.8446

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -3488.9738

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -3072.8387

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -2926.5634

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -2876.3486

Iteration 5:   log likelihood = -2859.2329

Iteration 6:   log likelihood = -2855.2026

Iteration 7:   log likelihood = -2854.8125

Iteration 8:   log likelihood = -2854.8067

Iteration 9:   log likelihood = -2854.8067

 

Fitting full model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -2506.5189

Iteration 1:   log likelihood =  -2480.862

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -2478.4754

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -2478.4672

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -2478.4672

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      2308

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       118

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      19.6

                                                               max =        24

 

                                                LR chi2(13)        =    752.68

Log likelihood  = -2478.4672                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |

         L1. |   .4446083   .0227267    19.56   0.000     .4000649    .4891518

      PUBRES |  -.0189988   .0911382    -0.21   0.835    -.1976265    .1596288

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |   .0061441    .022957     0.27   0.789    -.0388507    .0511389

         L1. |  -.0045784   .0236374    -0.19   0.846    -.0509069    .0417501

       CIVIL |

         D1. |  -.0016194   .0264869    -0.06   0.951    -.0535327    .0502939

         L1. |  -.0238082   .0161022    -1.48   0.139     -.055368    .0077516

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.3228577   .0282621   -11.42   0.000    -.3782505    -.267465

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -.2866357   .0305342    -9.39   0.000    -.3464817   -.2267898

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   .2115423   .1917496     1.10   0.270    -.1642799    .5873645

         WAR |  -.1202648   .0463375    -2.60   0.009    -.2110846    -.029445

       CAPAB |   .0813402    .564865     0.14   0.886    -1.025775    1.188455

      linear |  -.0031838   .0014142    -2.25   0.024    -.0059556   -.0004119

        quad |  -.0002693   .0001178    -2.29   0.022    -.0005001   -.0000386

       _cons |   8.137274   .5959992    13.65   0.000     6.969137    9.305411

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   .3274148   .0367864                      .2627013    .4080697

    /sigma_e |   .6787235   .0104913                      .6584693    .6996007

         rho |   .1887777   .0355615                      .1270851    .2661364

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=   94.43 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

. xtreg WBPOP l.WBPOP PUBRES d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB linear quad  , mle i(CCODE)

 

Fitting constant-only model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -2385.8294

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -2297.1104

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -2267.7496

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -2259.1281

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -2257.5564

Iteration 5:   log likelihood = -2257.4647

Iteration 6:   log likelihood = -2257.4642

 

Fitting full model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -2221.7323

Iteration 1:   log likelihood =  -2200.167

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -2198.6724

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -2198.6679

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      1548

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        84

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      18.4

                                                               max =        24

 

                                                LR chi2(13)        =    117.59

Log likelihood  = -2198.6679                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       WBPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       WBPOP |

         L1. |   .1691004    .027759     6.09   0.000     .1146938     .223507

      PUBRES |   .0812458   .1537675     0.53   0.597    -.2201328    .3826245

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -.0352037   .0390772    -0.90   0.368    -.1117936    .0413861

         L1. |  -.0739164   .0409678    -1.80   0.071    -.1542118    .0063789

       CIVIL |

         D1. |  -.0011284   .0445302    -0.03   0.980     -.088406    .0861492

         L1. |   .0345426   .0281341     1.23   0.220    -.0205991    .0896843

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.4613457   .0631468    -7.31   0.000    -.5851111   -.3375802

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -.0743226   .0493398    -1.51   0.132    -.1710268    .0223815

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   1.015067   .3420577     2.97   0.003     .3446464    1.685488

         WAR |  -.2261823   .0792501    -2.85   0.004    -.3815097   -.0708549

       CAPAB |  -1.100677   .8637201    -1.27   0.203    -2.793537    .5921833

      linear |    .009654   .0025366     3.81   0.000     .0046823    .0146256

        quad |  -.0005873   .0002006    -2.93   0.003    -.0009804   -.0001941

       _cons |   4.864568   .9466766     5.14   0.000     3.009116     6.72002

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   .4815552   .0562802                      .3829699    .6055186

    /sigma_e |   .9569151   .0179073                      .9224532    .9926644

         rho |   .2020731   .0389227                       .134569    .2865714

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=   95.19 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

.

. xtreg BIPOP l.BIPOP PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB linear quad , fe i(CCODE)r

> obust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =      2324

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       118

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.3386                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.5163                                        avg =      19.7

       overall = 0.4750                                        max =        24

 

                                                F(13,2193)         =     72.43

corr(u_i, Xb)  = -0.7715                        Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       BIPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |

         L1. |   .4488197   .0270572    16.59   0.000     .3957593    .5018801

      PUBRES |  -.0054702    .051986    -0.11   0.916    -.1074171    .0964768

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -.0413147   .0165125    -2.50   0.012    -.0736965   -.0089329

         L1. |  -.0268737   .0180428    -1.49   0.137    -.0622564     .008509

       CIVIL |

         D1. |  -.0084576   .0183268    -0.46   0.644    -.0443972     .027482

         L1. |  -.0093323   .0136659    -0.68   0.495    -.0361317    .0174671

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.0451519   .0390668    -1.16   0.248    -.1217636    .0314599

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -.8591031   .2143439    -4.01   0.000    -1.279441   -.4387648

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   -.337171   .1536488    -2.19   0.028    -.6384834   -.0358586

         WAR |  -.1054438   .0337906    -3.12   0.002    -.1717087   -.0391789

       CAPAB |  -1.594073   1.880259    -0.85   0.397    -5.281348    2.093202

      linear |    .001107   .0030052     0.37   0.713    -.0047865    .0070004

        quad |  -.0000574   .0000871    -0.66   0.511    -.0002283    .0001135

       _cons |   15.90808   3.529518     4.51   0.000     8.986536    22.82963

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  1.2120308

     sigma_e |  .48612789

         rho |  .86142324   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel replace

 

.

.

. xtreg MUPOP l.MUPOP PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB linear quad , fe i(CCODE)

> robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =      2308

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       118

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.2176                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.5368                                        avg =      19.6

       overall = 0.4531                                        max =        24

 

                                                F(13,2177)         =     32.06

corr(u_i, Xb)  = -0.7884                        Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       MUPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |

         L1. |   .3324228   .0291496    11.40   0.000     .2752589    .3895867

      PUBRES |  -.0152761   .0993635    -0.15   0.878    -.2101333    .1795811

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |   .0001372   .0215785     0.01   0.995    -.0421794    .0424538

         L1. |  -.0099965   .0258408    -0.39   0.699    -.0606717    .0406788

       CIVIL |

         D1. |   .0023609   .0272682     0.09   0.931    -.0511134    .0558353

         L1. |  -.0181998   .0188117    -0.97   0.333    -.0550905     .018691

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.1687765   .0594996    -2.84   0.005    -.2854585   -.0520946

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -1.114697   .3090868    -3.61   0.000    -1.720833   -.5085606

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   .2642463    .237689     1.11   0.266    -.2018746    .7303673

         WAR |  -.1199793   .0476539    -2.52   0.012    -.2134312   -.0265274

       CAPAB |   2.488311    1.67868     1.48   0.138    -.8036717    5.780294

      linear |   .0034692   .0044739     0.78   0.438    -.0053044    .0122429

        quad |  -.0003671   .0001453    -2.53   0.012     -.000652   -.0000822

       _cons |   20.40566   5.082958     4.01   0.000      10.4377    30.37361

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  1.2972767

     sigma_e |  .67009701

         rho |  .78938128   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

. xtreg WBPOP l.WBPOP PUBRES d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB  linear quad  , fe i(CCODE)

>  robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =      1548

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        84

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.0301                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.1995                                        avg =      18.4

       overall = 0.1198                                        max =        24

 

                                                F(13,1451)         =      4.64

corr(u_i, Xb)  = 0.0457                         Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       WBPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       WBPOP |

         L1. |   .0913937   .0359725     2.54   0.011     .0208301    .1619573

      PUBRES |   .0816035   .1222793     0.67   0.505    -.1582597    .3214666

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |   -.035145   .0405004    -0.87   0.386    -.1145906    .0443006

         L1. |  -.0697652   .0431923    -1.62   0.106    -.1544912    .0149608

       CIVIL |

         D1. |  -.0023541   .0468099    -0.05   0.960    -.0941764    .0894681

         L1. |   .0237856   .0340723     0.70   0.485    -.0430506    .0906218

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.2365246   .0958154    -2.47   0.014    -.4244762   -.0485731

       LNPOP |

         L1. |   .2661859   .5779184     0.46   0.645    -.8674591    1.399831

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   .4661282   .3591355     1.30   0.195    -.2383522    1.170608

         WAR |  -.2197009   .0817964    -2.69   0.007    -.3801528   -.0592491

       CAPAB |    -2.7472   2.035744    -1.35   0.177    -6.740515    1.246116

      linear |     .00002   .0078528     0.00   0.998     -.015384    .0154239

        quad |  -.0003934   .0002024    -1.94   0.052    -.0007904    3.55e-06

       _cons |  -1.645526   9.526043    -0.17   0.863    -20.33181    17.04076

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  .85610568

     sigma_e |  .95446489

         rho |  .44583487   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

Levels as Dependent Variable

 

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      2325

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       118

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      19.7

                                                               max =        24

 

                                                LR chi2(13)        =    882.49

Log likelihood  = -1819.4049                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

        lnBI |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

        lnBI |

         L1. |   .5425874   .0212017    25.59   0.000     .5010328    .5841419

      PUBRES |  -.0227746    .060209    -0.38   0.705     -.140782    .0952328

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -.0462876   .0169614    -2.73   0.006    -.0795314   -.0130437

         L1. |  -.0247835    .018434    -1.34   0.179    -.0609134    .0113464

       CIVIL |

         D1. |  -.0159473   .0195862    -0.81   0.416    -.0543355    .0224409

         L1. |  -.0211518   .0129553    -1.63   0.103    -.0465438    .0042403

       LNGDP |

         L1. |    -.10878   .0258281    -4.21   0.000    -.1594021   -.0581578

       LNPOP |

         L1. |   .4609005   .3251119     1.42   0.156     -.176307    1.098108

      LNPOP2 |

         L1. |  -.0025392   .0100487    -0.25   0.801    -.0222343    .0171558

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   -.146184   .1466462    -1.00   0.319    -.4336053    .1412372

         WAR |  -.0781483    .034801    -2.25   0.025     -.146357   -.0099396

      linear |  -.0054806   .0011262    -4.87   0.000     -.007688   -.0032732

        quad |  -.0000211   .0000865    -0.24   0.807    -.0001905    .0001484

       _cons |   4.713584   2.687457     1.75   0.079    -.5537357    9.980903

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   .4091198   .0408657                      .3363773    .4975931

    /sigma_e |    .495422   .0076482                      .4806562    .5106413

         rho |   .4054509   .0499615                      .3114141    .5053139

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=  123.76 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel replace

 

.

.

. xtreg lnMU l.lnMU PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.LNGDP l.LNPOP l.LNPOP2 l.USAGREE WAR linear quad , mle i(CCODE)

 

Fitting constant-only model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -4329.5786

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -4042.5896

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -3395.8427

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -3169.7002

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -3110.2256

Iteration 5:   log likelihood = -3096.3471

Iteration 6:   log likelihood = -3093.6592

Iteration 7:   log likelihood = -3093.4656

Iteration 8:   log likelihood = -3093.4641

 

Fitting full model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood =  -2812.812

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -2788.5212

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -2786.3105

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -2786.3025

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -2786.3025

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      2300

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       118

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      19.5

                                                               max =        24

 

                                                LR chi2(13)        =    614.32

Log likelihood  = -2786.3025                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

        lnMU |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

        lnMU |

         L1. |   .4543218   .0227294    19.99   0.000     .4097729    .4988706

      PUBRES |  -.2830492   .0906321    -3.12   0.002    -.4606848   -.1054136

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |   .0061359   .0264259     0.23   0.816    -.0456579    .0579298

         L1. |   .0165811   .0279051     0.59   0.552    -.0381119     .071274

       CIVIL |

         D1. |   .0090959   .0304698     0.30   0.765    -.0506238    .0688156

         L1. |  -.0325862   .0185394    -1.76   0.079    -.0689228    .0037504

       LNGDP |

         L1. |  -.3786497   .0322154   -11.75   0.000    -.4417908   -.3155086

       LNPOP |

         L1. |   .6983284   .3381805     2.06   0.039     .0355068     1.36115

      LNPOP2 |

         L1. |   -.003355   .0104554    -0.32   0.748    -.0238472    .0171372

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   .3238342    .222805     1.45   0.146    -.1128555    .7605239

         WAR |   -.079439   .0532447    -1.49   0.136    -.1837968    .0249187

      linear |  -.0040398   .0016324    -2.47   0.013    -.0072392   -.0008404

        quad |  -.0004424   .0001366    -3.24   0.001    -.0007101   -.0001747

       _cons |   8.305782   2.815211     2.95   0.003      2.78807    13.82349

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   .3816231   .0436249                      .3050214    .4774622

    /sigma_e |   .7782419   .0120798                      .7549224    .8022817

         rho |   .1938465   .0369457                      .1297869    .2741803

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=   88.83 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

.

. xtreg lnWB l.lnWB PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.LNGDP l.LNPOP l.LNPOP2 l.USAGREE WAR linear quad , mle i(CCODE)

 

Fitting constant-only model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -5435.7918

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -5219.8437

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -5128.1743

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -5099.0529

Iteration 4:   log likelihood =  -5090.209

Iteration 5:   log likelihood = -5088.5048

Iteration 6:   log likelihood = -5088.3952

Iteration 7:   log likelihood = -5088.3945

 

Fitting full model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -4971.4891

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -4955.2119

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -4954.2071

Iteration 3:   log likelihood =  -4954.205

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      1548

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        84

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      18.4

                                                               max =        24

 

                                                LR chi2(13)        =    268.38

Log likelihood  =  -4954.205                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

        lnWB |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

        lnWB |

         L1. |   .3286479   .0276259    11.90   0.000     .2745022    .3827936

      PUBRES |  -2.607257   .8275894    -3.15   0.002    -4.229303    -.985212

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -.3247195   .2340831    -1.39   0.165    -.7835139    .1340749

         L1. |  -.2869033   .2497602    -1.15   0.251    -.7764243    .2026176

       CIVIL |

         D1. |   .1504781   .2646918     0.57   0.570    -.3683083    .6692644

         L1. |   .2062989   .1630888     1.26   0.206    -.1133494    .5259471

       LNGDP |

         L1. |   -3.58247   .3614388    -9.91   0.000    -4.290877   -2.874063

       LNPOP |

         L1. |   5.063735   2.576136     1.97   0.049     .0146009    10.11287

      LNPOP2 |

         L1. |  -.0260826   .0776991    -0.34   0.737    -.1783701     .126205

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   6.767689   2.006038     3.37   0.001     2.835926    10.69945

         WAR |  -1.545163   .4671131    -3.31   0.001    -2.460688   -.6296383

      linear |   .0743247   .0148599     5.00   0.000     .0451999    .1034495

        quad |  -.0029212   .0011903    -2.45   0.014    -.0052542   -.0005882

       _cons |    10.7805   21.18826     0.51   0.611    -30.74772    52.30873

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   2.424806   .3083332                      1.889906    3.111101

    /sigma_e |   5.715278   .1070281                       5.50931    5.928946

         rho |   .1525445   .0339072                      .0955319    .2285216

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=   66.10 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

 

                                                F(13,2194)         =     33.89

corr(u_i, Xb)  = 0.6481                         Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

        lnBI |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

        lnBI |

         L1. |   .4403158   .0284841    15.46   0.000     .3844573    .4961744

      PUBRES |  -.0686886   .0644171    -1.07   0.286    -.1950134    .0576362

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -.0486375   .0169431    -2.87   0.004    -.0818636   -.0154113

         L1. |   -.031463   .0185055    -1.70   0.089    -.0677531    .0048271

       CIVIL |

         D1. |  -.0105468   .0184289    -0.57   0.567    -.0466867    .0255931

         L1. |  -.0118061   .0138229    -0.85   0.393    -.0389135    .0153013

       LNGDP |

         L1. |  -.0428712   .0398526    -1.08   0.282     -.121024    .0352817

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -1.839718   .6645302    -2.77   0.006    -3.142892   -.5365441

      LNPOP2 |

         L1. |   .0550197   .0224673     2.45   0.014     .0109603    .0990792

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   -.335704   .1550127    -2.17   0.030     -.639691   -.0317171

         WAR |  -.0876941   .0341046    -2.57   0.010    -.1545748   -.0208135

      linear |  -.0015666    .003208    -0.49   0.625    -.0078576    .0047245

        quad |  -.0000439   .0000878    -0.50   0.617    -.0002161    .0001283

       _cons |   27.05552    5.59447     4.84   0.000     16.08451    38.02653

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  .95776948

     sigma_e |  .49029395

         rho |  .79235901   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel replace

 

.

.

. xtreg lnMU l.lnMU PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.LNGDP l.LNPOP l.LNPOP2 l.USAGREE WAR linear quad , fe i(CCODE)

> robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =      2300

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       118

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.1649                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.4558                                        avg =      19.5

       overall = 0.3109                                        max =        24

 

                                                F(13,2169)         =     15.44

corr(u_i, Xb)  = 0.1898                         Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

        lnMU |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

        lnMU |

         L1. |   .3419873    .032394    10.56   0.000     .2784608    .4055138

      PUBRES |  -.2235031   .1435066    -1.56   0.120    -.5049279    .0579216

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -.0034685   .0270444    -0.13   0.898    -.0565043    .0495672

         L1. |   .0035815   .0294568     0.12   0.903     -.054185    .0613479

       CIVIL |

         D1. |   .0124503   .0313881     0.40   0.692    -.0491035    .0740041

         L1. |  -.0286533   .0216484    -1.32   0.186    -.0711072    .0138006

       LNGDP |

         L1. |  -.2181769   .0655243    -3.33   0.001    -.3466737     -.08968

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -1.724116   1.226221    -1.41   0.160    -4.128807     .680574

      LNPOP2 |

         L1. |   .0519009   .0427387     1.21   0.225    -.0319122    .1357139

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   .4985051   .2666063     1.87   0.062    -.0243254    1.021336

         WAR |  -.0799972   .0631436    -1.27   0.205    -.2038255     .043831

      linear |   .0008268   .0052438     0.16   0.875    -.0094567    .0111103

        quad |  -.0006027   .0001608    -3.75   0.000    -.0009181   -.0002873

       _cons |   31.08354   9.673358     3.21   0.001     12.11353    50.05356

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  1.1313743

     sigma_e |  .76883626

         rho |  .68408751   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

.

. xtreg lnWB l.lnWB PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.LNGDP l.LNPOP l.LNPOP2 l.USAGREE WAR linear quad , fe i(CCODE)

> robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =      1548

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        84

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.0923                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.6126                                        avg =      18.4

       overall = 0.4105                                        max =        24

 

                                                F(13,1451)         =      7.19

corr(u_i, Xb)  = 0.2350                         Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

        lnWB |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

        lnWB |

         L1. |    .238476   .0369815     6.45   0.000      .165933    .3110189

      PUBRES |  -1.782078   .9304098    -1.92   0.056     -3.60717    .0430142

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -.3002511   .2561437    -1.17   0.241    -.8027026    .2022004

         L1. |  -.2597325   .2778469    -0.93   0.350     -.804757    .2852921

       CIVIL |

         D1. |   .0933475   .2751771     0.34   0.734      -.44644     .633135

         L1. |    .088575   .2094339     0.42   0.672    -.3222505    .4994005

       LNGDP |

         L1. |  -1.946937   .6242361    -3.12   0.002    -3.171438    -.722435

       LNPOP |

         L1. |   7.241387   11.30224     0.64   0.522    -14.92909    29.41186

      LNPOP2 |

         L1. |  -.1015086   .3777105    -0.27   0.788    -.8424256    .6394083

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   4.113711   2.207345     1.86   0.063    -.2162183     8.44364

         WAR |  -1.582126   .5160597    -3.07   0.002    -2.594428   -.5698226

      linear |   .0229451   .0513844     0.45   0.655    -.0778505    .1237407

        quad |  -.0018219   .0013164    -1.38   0.167    -.0044042    .0007604

       _cons |  -38.75698   92.55554    -0.42   0.675    -220.3139       142.8

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  4.5560633

     sigma_e |     5.6902

         rho |  .39065188   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

 

Treatment Effect Models

Table II. Treatment Regressions on Logged Aid per Capita (World Bank Sample)

 

Multilateral

World Bank

 

Outcome

Treatment

Outcome

Treatment

Lagged Dependent Variable

0.608

-

0.345

-

(19.01)**

-

(6.55)**

-

UNCHR Resolution

-0.308

-

-0.443

-

(1.91)

-

(2.78)**

-

Δ PTS

0.023

0.297

0.005

0.311

 

(0.84)

(2.01)*

(0.11)

(2.11)*

PTS t-1

0.013

0.384

-.000

0.388

 

(0.42)

(2.97)**

(0.01)

(2.91)**

Δ Civil Liberties

0.016

-0.116

-0.017

-0.166

 

(0.56)

(0.5)

(0.46)

(0.7)

Civil Liberties t-1

0.012

0.074

0.014

0.05

 

(0.77)

(0.97)

(0.51)

(0.62)

GDP per Capita t-1

(logged)

-0.208

-0.025

-0.5

-0.042

(6.72)**

(0.21)

(9.83)**

(0.34)

Population t-1 (logged)

-0.208

-0.113

-0.065

-0.119

(7.58)**

(0.99)

(1.94)

(1.04)

Agreement with US t-1

0.314

1.31

1.402

1.297

 

(1.45)

(1.14)

(3.34)**

(1.19)

War

-0.048

0.281

-0.192

0.279

 

(0.86)

(1.43)

(2.24)*

(1.45)

Capabilities

-0.112

2.142

-0.921

2.115

 

(0.5)

(1.43)

(3.00)**

(1.34)

Time (1st spline)

-0.001

-0.002

0.012

-0.002

 

(0.79)

(0.24)

(4.24)**

(0.31)

Time (2nd spline)

-.000

-0.001

-0.001

-0.001

 

(1.89)

(1.4)

(3.65)**

(1.37)

Constant

5.531

-2.521

4.576

-2.23

 

(9.68)**

(1.29)

(8.53)**

(1.1)

Past UNCHR Resolution

-

3.134

-

3.169

-

(9.90)**

-

(9.77)**

Left Executive

-

-1.199

-

-1.258

 

-

(3.03)**

-

(2.80)**

ICCPR Treaty

-

0.511

-

0.516

 

-

(2.89)**

-

(2.94)**

Membership

-

-0.271

-

-0.256

 

-

(1.42)

-

(1.31)

UN Participation

-

0.225

-

0.229

 

-

(0.69)

-

(0.67)

N

1548

1548

Ci-sq ind. equations

1.63 (p=.201)

0.11 (p=.991)

*significant at 5% level; ** significant at 1% level  (two-tailed tests)

Absolute value of z-statistics in parentheses

Not Logarithmically Transformed

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      2324

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       118

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      19.7

                                                               max =        24

 

                                                LR chi2(14)        =   2592.38

Log likelihood  = -11132.742                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |

         L1. |   .7219975   .0134533    53.67   0.000     .6956295    .7483656

      PUBRES |   7.646513   2.802232     2.73   0.006      2.15424    13.13879

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -2.704706   .9348885    -2.89   0.004    -4.537054   -.8723583

         L1. |  -2.215864   .8650346    -2.56   0.010      -3.9113   -.5204268

       CIVIL |

         D1. |  -1.364578   1.085103    -1.26   0.209    -3.491342    .7621854

         L1. |  -1.195924   .5136132    -2.33   0.020    -2.202587   -.1892607

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.0006385   .0004832    -1.32   0.186    -.0015856    .0003085

    POPULATI |

         L1. |  -6.65e-08   2.95e-08    -2.25   0.024    -1.24e-07   -8.66e-09

       POPSQ |

         L1. |   7.35e-17   2.11e-17     3.48   0.000     3.21e-17    1.15e-16

       GDPSQ |

         L1. |  -2.01e-10   2.20e-08    -0.01   0.993    -4.34e-08    4.30e-08

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   17.73815   7.328501     2.42   0.016     3.374554    32.10175

         WAR |   1.973809   1.769901     1.12   0.265    -1.495132    5.442751

       CAPAB |  -39.36731   39.72334    -0.99   0.322    -117.2236      38.489

      linear |  -.1026098   .0546357    -1.88   0.060    -.2096938    .0044743

        quad |  -.0114164   .0047716    -2.39   0.017    -.0207686   -.0020641

       _cons |   20.65774   4.232906     4.88   0.000      12.3614    28.95409

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   4.585793          0                      4.585793    4.585793

    /sigma_e |   28.77236   .4307105                      27.94045    29.62905

         rho |   .0247733          .                             .           .

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=    8.22 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.002

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel replace

 

.

.

. xtreg MUPOP l.MUPOP PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.POPULATI l.POPSQ l.GDPSQ l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB linear

> quad , mle i(CCODE)

 

Fitting constant-only model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -10567.278

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -10380.119

Iteration 2:   log likelihood =  -10310.67

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -10286.298

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -10279.825

Iteration 5:   log likelihood =  -10278.99

Iteration 6:   log likelihood = -10278.967

Iteration 7:   log likelihood = -10278.967

 

Fitting full model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -10202.565

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -10166.237

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -10133.369

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -10132.101

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -10132.097

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      2308

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       118

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      19.6

                                                               max =        24

 

                                                LR chi2(14)        =    293.74

Log likelihood  = -10132.097                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |

         L1. |   .2675163   .0214799    12.45   0.000     .2254165    .3096161

      PUBRES |   -1.15103   2.185828    -0.53   0.598    -5.435174    3.133115

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -1.058455   .6320405    -1.67   0.094    -2.297232    .1803214

         L1. |  -1.615747   .6728203    -2.40   0.016    -2.934451   -.2970436

       CIVIL |

         D1. |   .2849399   .7247971     0.39   0.694    -1.135636    1.705516

         L1. |   .1488092   .4629161     0.32   0.748    -.7584897    1.056108

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.0022605   .0005152    -4.39   0.000    -.0032702   -.0012509

    POPULATI |

         L1. |  -5.79e-08   4.06e-08    -1.43   0.154    -1.37e-07    2.17e-08

       POPSQ |

         L1. |   5.82e-17   2.35e-17     2.48   0.013     1.21e-17    1.04e-16

       GDPSQ |

         L1. |   5.45e-08   1.85e-08     2.95   0.003     1.83e-08    9.07e-08

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   4.837952   5.343688     0.91   0.365    -5.635484    15.31139

         WAR |   -2.40947   1.288532    -1.87   0.061    -4.934945    .1160052

       CAPAB |  -48.12056   48.50162    -0.99   0.321     -143.182    46.94086

      linear |  -.1097376   .0394695    -2.78   0.005    -.1870964   -.0323788

        quad |  -.0082877   .0032232    -2.57   0.010    -.0146051   -.0019703

       _cons |   26.56184   3.636852     7.30   0.000     19.43374    33.68994

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   12.03861   1.055822                      10.13733    14.29649

    /sigma_e |   18.46161   .2817839                      17.91751    19.02224

         rho |   .2983539   .0378905                      .2286603    .3763749

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=  218.46 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

. xtreg WBPOP l.WBPOP PUBRES d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.POPULATI l.POPSQ l.GDPSQ l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB linear q

> uad  , mle i(CCODE)

 

Fitting constant-only model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood =  -5794.997

Iteration 1:   log likelihood =  -5750.421

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -5739.6629

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -5737.7781

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -5737.6623

Iteration 5:   log likelihood = -5737.6616

 

Fitting full model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -5712.5039

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -5701.8098

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -5701.5772

Iteration 3:   log likelihood =  -5701.577

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      1548

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        84

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      18.4

                                                               max =        24

 

                                                LR chi2(14)        =     72.17

Log likelihood  =  -5701.577                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       WBPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       WBPOP |

         L1. |   .1062072   .0260977     4.07   0.000     .0550567    .1573577

      PUBRES |  -2.876816   1.315841    -2.19   0.029    -5.455817   -.2978143

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -.1273318   .3781324    -0.34   0.736    -.8684577     .613794

         L1. |  -.5767798   .3920339    -1.47   0.141    -1.345152    .1915926

       CIVIL |

         D1. |   .0168748   .4294967     0.04   0.969    -.8249233    .8586728

         L1. |   .3572819   .2645951     1.35   0.177     -.161315    .8758788

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.0042962   .0008773    -4.90   0.000    -.0060156   -.0025767

    POPULATI |

         L1. |  -2.43e-08   1.61e-08    -1.51   0.130    -5.58e-08    7.15e-09

       POPSQ |

         L1. |   2.09e-17   1.06e-17     1.98   0.047     2.37e-19    4.16e-17

       GDPSQ |

         L1. |   3.73e-07   1.20e-07     3.11   0.002     1.38e-07    6.08e-07

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   8.725206   3.299424     2.64   0.008     2.258454    15.19196

         WAR |  -1.313457   .7603869    -1.73   0.084    -2.803788    .1768743

       CAPAB |  -11.31539   24.16904    -0.47   0.640    -58.68585    36.05506

      linear |   .0818738   .0243184     3.37   0.001     .0342105     .129537

        quad |  -.0066262   .0019368    -3.42   0.001    -.0104223   -.0028301

       _cons |   8.661486   2.104338     4.12   0.000     4.537059    12.78591

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   3.757194   .5142746                      2.873117    4.913305

    /sigma_e |    9.27938   .1744994                      8.943594    9.627774

         rho |   .1408504   .0341802                      .0843713    .2186509

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=   53.60 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

Regression that Includes the Year Before the Adoption of a UNCHR resolution (variable help)

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      2324

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       118

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      19.7

                                                               max =        24

 

                                                LR chi2(14)        =   1108.45

Log likelihood  = -1790.6841                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |

         L1. |   .5534005   .0216949    25.51   0.000     .5108792    .5959217

        help |   .0109549    .118878     0.09   0.927    -.2220416    .2439514

      PUBRES |   -.032417   .0651706    -0.50   0.619     -.160149     .095315

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |   -.037063   .0168658    -2.20   0.028    -.0701194   -.0040066

         L1. |  -.0175197   .0182199    -0.96   0.336    -.0532301    .0181908

       CIVIL |

         D1. |  -.0154025   .0194041    -0.79   0.427    -.0534339    .0226289

         L1. |  -.0203749   .0128101    -1.59   0.112    -.0454823    .0047324

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.1071874   .0251329    -4.26   0.000    -.1564469   -.0579279

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -.1622778   .0310535    -5.23   0.000    -.2231415   -.1014141

     USAGREE |

         L1. |  -.1235023   .1449716    -0.85   0.394    -.4076413    .1606368

         WAR |  -.0876369   .0344439    -2.54   0.011    -.1551456   -.0201281

       CAPAB |  -.7584601   .6055079    -1.25   0.210    -1.945234    .4283136

      linear |    -.00491   .0011155    -4.40   0.000    -.0070965   -.0027236

        quad |   -.000046   .0000855    -0.54   0.590    -.0002136    .0001215

       _cons |   4.903234   .5661647     8.66   0.000     3.793572    6.012897

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |    .385318   .0383399                      .3170466    .4682906

    /sigma_e |   .4906367   .0075667                       .476028    .5056936

         rho |   .3814803    .048691                      .2904947    .4795629

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=  107.36 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel replace

 

.

.

. xtreg MUPOP l.MUPOP help PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB linear quad , mle i(C

> CODE)

 

Fitting constant-only model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -4090.1554

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -3431.8514

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -3064.4811

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -2929.1457

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -2877.9332

Iteration 5:   log likelihood = -2859.7067

Iteration 6:   log likelihood = -2855.2735

Iteration 7:   log likelihood = -2854.8146

Iteration 8:   log likelihood = -2854.8067

Iteration 9:   log likelihood = -2854.8067

 

Fitting full model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -2498.6721

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -2471.8102

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -2469.2521

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -2469.2428

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -2469.2428

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      2308

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       118

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      19.6

                                                               max =        24

 

                                                LR chi2(14)        =    771.13

Log likelihood  = -2469.2428                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |

         L1. |   .4349621    .022523    19.31   0.000     .3908179    .4791064

        help |   .3145141   .1624911     1.94   0.053    -.0039627    .6329908

      PUBRES |  -.3681636   .0856941    -4.30   0.000    -.5361209   -.2002063

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |   .0143597   .0230228     0.62   0.533     -.030764    .0594835

         L1. |   .0166385   .0241552     0.69   0.491    -.0307049    .0639819

       CIVIL |

         D1. |   .0046953   .0264063     0.18   0.859    -.0470601    .0564506

         L1. |  -.0164821   .0161634    -1.02   0.308    -.0481618    .0151976

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.3299795   .0281659   -11.72   0.000    -.3851837   -.2747754

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -.2998144   .0307536    -9.75   0.000    -.3600904   -.2395384

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   .2602808    .191375     1.36   0.174    -.1148074     .635369

         WAR |  -.1097219   .0462081    -2.37   0.018    -.2002882   -.0191556

       CAPAB |    .099572    .563921     0.18   0.860    -1.005693    1.204837

      linear |  -.0026019   .0014122    -1.84   0.065    -.0053697     .000166

        quad |  -.0002918   .0001174    -2.48   0.013    -.0005219   -.0000616

       _cons |   8.307768   .5898356    14.08   0.000     7.151712    9.463825

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   .3286124   .0359715                      .2651595    .4072496

    /sigma_e |   .6757968   .0104238                      .6556723    .6965391

         rho |   .1912316   .0349795                      .1302925    .2670617

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=  100.41 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

. xtreg WBPOP l.WBPOP help PUBRES d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB linear quad  , mle i(C

> CODE)

 

Fitting constant-only model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -2389.2943

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -2298.3985

Iteration 2:   log likelihood = -2268.1924

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -2259.2344

Iteration 4:   log likelihood = -2257.5666

Iteration 5:   log likelihood = -2257.4648

Iteration 6:   log likelihood = -2257.4642

 

Fitting full model:

Iteration 0:   log likelihood = -2215.3212

Iteration 1:   log likelihood = -2195.4334

Iteration 2:   log likelihood =  -2194.291

Iteration 3:   log likelihood = -2194.2883

 

Random-effects ML regression                    Number of obs      =      1548

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        84

 

Random effects u_i ~ Gaussian                   Obs per group: min =         4

                                                               avg =      18.4

                                                               max =        24

 

                                                LR chi2(14)        =    126.35

Log likelihood  = -2194.2883                    Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       WBPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       WBPOP |

         L1. |   .1672693   .0277209     6.03   0.000     .1129375    .2216012

        help |   -.036759   .2831504    -0.13   0.897    -.5917236    .5182056

      PUBRES |  -.4144008    .154852    -2.68   0.007    -.7179052   -.1108963

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -.0178795   .0394495    -0.45   0.650     -.095199    .0594401

         L1. |  -.0407546   .0422811    -0.96   0.335     -.123624    .0421147

       CIVIL |

         D1. |   .0032159   .0445067     0.07   0.942    -.0840156    .0904475

         L1. |   .0415496   .0281069     1.48   0.139     -.013539    .0966382

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.4746341   .0617553    -7.69   0.000    -.5956723   -.3535959

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -.0886937   .0481287    -1.84   0.065    -.1830242    .0056368

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   1.109894   .3419578     3.25   0.001     .4396691    1.780119

         WAR |  -.2183667   .0788635    -2.77   0.006    -.3729363   -.0637971

       CAPAB |  -1.131022   .8317029    -1.36   0.174    -2.761129     .499086

      linear |   .0105184   .0025308     4.16   0.000     .0055581    .0154786

        quad |  -.0006184   .0002005    -3.08   0.002    -.0010113   -.0002254

       _cons |   5.122932   .9070839     5.65   0.000     3.345081    6.900784

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

    /sigma_u |   .4626444   .0547614                      .3668545    .5834462

    /sigma_e |   .9558051   .0178824                       .921391    .9915046

         rho |   .1898184   .0375839                      .1250351    .2719413

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Likelihood-ratio test of sigma_u=0: chibar2(01)=   90.28 Prob>=chibar2 = 0.000

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

 

 

. do "C:\DOCUME~1\Faculty\LOCALS~1\Temp\STD02000000.tmp"

 

.

. xtreg BIPOP l.BIPOP help PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB linear quad , fe i(CC

> ODE)robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =      2324

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       118

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.3389                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.5137                                        avg =      19.7

       overall = 0.4733                                        max =        24

 

                                                F(14,2192)         =     67.61

corr(u_i, Xb)  = -0.7774                        Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       BIPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       BIPOP |

         L1. |   .4478204   .0270362    16.56   0.000     .3948012    .5008396

        help |   .0350222   .1321022     0.27   0.791    -.2240363    .2940807

      PUBRES |  -.0727536   .0651454    -1.12   0.264    -.2005068    .0549995

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -.0394666   .0165917    -2.38   0.017    -.0720037   -.0069295

         L1. |  -.0229368   .0184051    -1.25   0.213    -.0590301    .0131566

       CIVIL |

         D1. |  -.0066698   .0183744    -0.36   0.717    -.0427028    .0293632

         L1. |  -.0071689   .0139342    -0.51   0.607    -.0344946    .0201568

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.0516518     .03944    -1.31   0.190    -.1289954    .0256918

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -.8739591    .213705    -4.09   0.000    -1.293045   -.4548736

     USAGREE |

         L1. |  -.3285587   .1542617    -2.13   0.033    -.6310731   -.0260444

         WAR |  -.1031644   .0337053    -3.06   0.002     -.169262   -.0370668

       CAPAB |  -1.589832   1.872166    -0.85   0.396    -5.261238    2.081573

      linear |   .0014394   .0030128     0.48   0.633    -.0044688    .0073476

        quad |  -.0000621   .0000877    -0.71   0.479     -.000234    .0001099

       _cons |    16.1647    3.51393     4.60   0.000     9.273715    23.05568

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |   1.228668

     sigma_e |   .4861103

         rho |  .86465469   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel replace

 

.

.

. xtreg MUPOP l.MUPOP help PUBRES  d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB linear quad , fe i(CC

> ODE) robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =      2308

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =       118

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.2226                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.5430                                        avg =      19.6

       overall = 0.4563                                        max =        24

 

                                                F(14,2176)         =     30.73

corr(u_i, Xb)  = -0.8143                        Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       MUPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       MUPOP |

         L1. |   .3267054   .0289057    11.30   0.000     .2700197    .3833911

        help |   .3002291   .1794088     1.67   0.094    -.0516014    .6520597

      PUBRES |  -.3545142   .1043858    -3.40   0.001    -.5592205   -.1498078

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |   .0072007   .0214348     0.34   0.737    -.0348341    .0492355

         L1. |   .0073618   .0253148     0.29   0.771    -.0422819    .0570056

       CIVIL |

         D1. |   .0112517   .0272623     0.41   0.680    -.0422112    .0647146

         L1. |  -.0072369   .0191013    -0.38   0.705    -.0446956    .0302217

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.2005555   .0592696    -3.38   0.001    -.3167864   -.0843245

       LNPOP |

         L1. |  -1.186137    .302634    -3.92   0.000    -1.779619   -.5926552

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   .3045842   .2371263     1.28   0.199    -.1604335     .769602

         WAR |  -.1098883   .0473901    -2.32   0.020    -.2028229   -.0169537

       CAPAB |   2.497907   1.671678     1.49   0.135    -.7803457    5.776159

      linear |   .0050449   .0043837     1.15   0.250    -.0035518    .0136417

        quad |  -.0003859   .0001449    -2.66   0.008    -.0006701   -.0001017

       _cons |   21.65294   4.969537     4.36   0.000      11.9074    31.39847

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  1.3639749

     sigma_e |  .66807557

         rho |  .80651371   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.

. outreg using test.doc, nolabel append

 

.

. xtreg WBPOP l.WBPOP help PUBRES d.HRIGHTS l.HRIGHTS d.CIVIL l.CIVIL l.GDPPOP l.LNPOP l.USAGREE WAR CAPAB  linear quad  , fe i(C

> CODE) robust

 

Fixed-effects (within) regression               Number of obs      =      1548

Group variable (i): CCODE                       Number of groups   =        84

 

R-sq:  within  = 0.0323                         Obs per group: min =         4

       between = 0.3777                                        avg =      18.4

       overall = 0.2105                                        max =        24

 

                                                F(14,1450)         =      4.66

corr(u_i, Xb)  = 0.2577                         Prob > F           =    0.0000

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             |               Robust

       WBPOP |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

       WBPOP |

         L1. |   .0892435    .035927     2.48   0.013     .0187691    .1597178

        help |  -.1289845   .2718263    -0.47   0.635    -.6621993    .4042303

      PUBRES |  -.2456161   .1313612    -1.87   0.062    -.5032943    .0120622

     HRIGHTS |

         D1. |  -.0246205    .040693    -0.61   0.545     -.104444     .055203

         L1. |  -.0513911   .0441477    -1.16   0.245    -.1379912     .035209

       CIVIL |

         D1. |     .00094   .0467197     0.02   0.984    -.0907054    .0925855

         L1. |   .0310069   .0353835     0.88   0.381    -.0384015    .1004153

      GDPPOP |

         L1. |  -.2692369   .0967404    -2.78   0.005     -.459003   -.0794707

       LNPOP |

         L1. |   .1902446   .5717389     0.33   0.739    -.9312793    1.311768

     USAGREE |

         L1. |   .5205373   .3614976     1.44   0.150    -.1885768    1.229651

         WAR |  -.2119028   .0815444    -2.60   0.009    -.3718603   -.0519453

       CAPAB |  -3.098046   2.011872    -1.54   0.124    -7.044538    .8484456

      linear |    .001596   .0078025     0.20   0.838    -.0137095    .0169015

        quad |  -.0004121   .0002025    -2.04   0.042    -.0008093   -.0000149

       _cons |  -.2302004   9.420818    -0.02   0.981    -18.71009    18.24969

-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------

     sigma_u |  .78105452

     sigma_e |  .95374211

         rho |  .40143326   (fraction of variance due to u_i)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

.