If you use this data, please cite the following two works:
Howard Rosenthal and Erik Voeten. 2004. “Analyzing Roll Calls with Perfect Spatial Voting: France 1946-1958.” American Journal of Political Science 48(3): 620-32. (for a more detailed analysis, you may also want to look at our paper: Government Instability with Perfect Spatial Voting: France 1946-1958 , which is available as Russell Sage working paper #197.)
Duncan MacRae Jr. 1967. Parliament, Parties, and Society in France 1946-1958. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
The data are based on Duncan MacRae’s French Representation Study 1946-58 (ICPSR Study No. 52). The original data separates out the votes of legislators and their party and or cabinet status, something that changed frequently for many legislators even within a legislative session. Codebooks are available from the ICPSR.
We have read the data from card format into a format suitable for modern statistical software. We have also scanned information about the roll-calls in the codebooks such that it is now integrated into the databases. We have also reorganized the data such that it is more suitable for analysis.
The data are from the first (1946-51), second (1951-56) and final (1956-58) legislatures of the Fourth Republic. The sample of roll calls consists of two parts (See MacRae, Appendix A, for more detail). First, it contains all 739 roll calls mentioned in L’Année Politique. Sampling in this way is roughly similar to constructing a sample for Congress using only “key” votes reported in Congressional Quarterly Weekly. L’Année Politique includes important votes, such as investitures, confidence votes, important budget votes, and other policy votes. Second, it includes a random sample of 50 votes per legislature from the remainder of all roll call votes.
Among the legislators in the dataset are well-known French politicians such as Charles de Gaulle, Valerie Giscard d’Estaing, Francois Mitterand, Pierre Mendes-France, and Jean-Marie Le Pen. The sample includes votes on topics such as NATO, the European Defense Community, Algeria, Indo-China, Italy treaty, Paris accords, military budget, atomic energy development, labor strike regulations, taxes, public health, Parisian transportation, colliery schools, National Assembly reform, agriculture, land reform, fiscal reform, inflation, salary scales, and amnesty. It includes a total of 33 votes to invest a new prime minister, and 136 votes of confidence. The data allow the analyst to identify what vote is an investiture/confidence vote and whether a legislator is in the cabinet at the time of the vote. It is thus very suitable for analyses of cabinet formation in a parliamentary system.
Identification variables: Mid is the unique legislator identifier that should be used when merging files. Id1, id2, id3 are ids that can be used when analyzing separate legislatures.
Itemid identifies the roll-calls in the roll call information file and corresponds to the variable numbers in the other three data-files (so v1001 corresponds to the case where itemid has the value 1001). V1001- are votes taken in the first legislature, v2001- in the second legislature, v3001- in the third.
1 = “Yes”
6 = “No”
7 = “Abstain”
8 = “Not Present”
9 = “Not Seated”
Two types of party codes are used. First, MacRae’s original party-codes. These codes vary by legislature!!! In the pooled data:
Party1: 0 'Not seated' 1 'Communiste' 2 'Progressiste' 3 'Rass. Dem. Afr.' 4 'Socialiste' 5 'Musul, Ind.' 6 'TLD Algerie' 7 'Gauche Ind.' 8 'Radical-Soc.' 9 'MRP' 10 'UDSR' 11 'Ind. Outremer' 12 'PRL' 13 'Act. Pays Soc.' 14 'Un. Dem. Soc.' 15 'Rep. Dem. Soc.' 16 'Act. Dem. Soc.' 17 'Rep. Pop. Ind.' 18 'Non Inscrit'.
Party2: 0 'Not seated' 1 'Communiste' 2 'Progressiste' 3 'Rass. Dem. Afr.' 4 'Socialiste' 5 'Musul, Ind.' 6 'TLD Algerie' 7 'Gauche Ind.' 8 'Radical-Soc.' 9 'MRP' 10 'UDSR' 11 'Ind. Outremer' 12 'Ind. Paysan' 13 'Paysan' 14 'Cent. Dem. Soc.' 15 'Rep. Indep.' 16 'RPF, URAS, RS' 17 'ARS' 18 'Non Inscrit'.
Party 3: 0 'Not seated' 1 'Communiste' 2 'Progressiste' 3 'Rass. Dem. Afr.' 4 'Socialiste' 5 'Mouv. Soc. Afr' 6 'Rad. (Morice)' 7 'Rad. (Faure)' 8 'Radical-Soc.' 9 'MRP' 10 'UDSR' 11 'Ind. Outremer' 12 '' 13 'Paysan' 14 'IPAS-Rurale' 15 'IPAS' 16 'Rep. Soc.' 17 'Uff (Poujade)' 18 'Non Inscrit'.
The second coding scheme groups the individual parties into party families (see Rosenthal and Voeten 2004). This coding is used in the pooled data for party1new, party2new, party3new and is the basis for the partyswitcher data:
0 'Not seated' 1 'Communists' 2 'Socialists' 3 'Radicals' 4 'Rural parties' 5 'Christian Democrats' 6 'Gaullists' 7 'Poujadists' 10 'Other' 11 'Not affiliated'.
The Right includes Parti Républicain de la Liberté, Républicains Indépendants, Indépendants, Paysans, Indépendants d’Outremer, Indépendants Paysans, Paysan, IPAS. The Gaullists include RPF, URAS, and ARS.
Below are the SPSS recode-statements to go from the MacRae-coding to the common party-grouping coding:
(0=0) (1=1) (4=2) (2=10) (5=10) (8=3) (9=5) (10=3) (12=4) (13=4)
(15=4) (18=11) (SYSMIS=0) (else=10) into party1new .
(0=0) (1=1) (3=10) (4=2) (2=10) (7=10) (8=3) (9=5) (10=3) (11=4) (12=4) (13=4)
(15=4) (16=6) (17=6) (18=11) (SYSMIS=0) (else=10) into party2new .
(0=0) (1=1) (4=2) (2=10) (7=3) (8=3) (9=5) (10=3) (11=4) (13=4)
(15=4) (16=6) (17=7) (18=11) (SYSMIS=0) (else=10) into party3new.
The codes in the legislator status data file correspond to the original MacRae partycodes (see above for how to transform these, remember v1001- is first legislature, v2001- second legislature, v3001- third legislature). If a legislator is in the cabinet at the moment of the vote, 100 is added to the code. So a value of 101 for variable 2001 refers to a communist who is in the cabinet at the time vote id 2001 is taken. A value 1 on the same vote corresponds to a communist not in the cabinet.
X12 is the 1st dimension NOMINATE coordinate in the 1st legislature (from a 2-dimensional solution), y12 the 2nd dimension coordinate. X22 is the 1st dimension coordinate in the second legislature, etcetera. _o indicates optimal classification coordinates. Variable labels are descriptive. File also includes legislator specific fit characteristics (GMP for NOMINATE, classification proportion for OC).
Scales are all named after the tables in MacRae’s book. So, sca731 is the first scale in table 7.3. Variable labels are descriptive of scale content.