Courses

LING 257/357:     Methodology of Language Teaching
LING 269:      Aspects of Bilingualism
LING 393:      English as an International Language
LING 451:      Bilingualism
LING 752:      Seminar on Methodology of Language Teaching: Communicative Language Teaching
GREE-011:     Intensive First Level Modern Greek I
GREE-012:     Intensive First Level Modern Greek II
 

LING 257/357: Methodology of Language Teaching
Spring Semester 2001
Tues /Thurs 1:15 - 2:30 p.m., ICC 104
Office Hours: Tuesdays & Thursdays 3:00 – 4:00 pm, and by appointment

COURSE DESCRIPTION
This course will focus on an interdisciplinary, applied linguistics approach to second-language teaching and learning based on current research on first- and second-language acquisition. This approach is based on the assumption that language study is a “total human experience” rather than merely an audiolingual or cognitive one. Any act of communication involves the inextricable interrelationship of the subject matter of a variety of disciplines such as linguistics (theoretical and applied), anthropology (cultural and ethnolinguistics), psychology (or psycholinguistics), sociology (or sociolinguistics), and professional education (pedagogy). An interdisciplinary approach at the beginning, intermediate, and advanced proficiency levels of the school curriculum is essential.

Classroom interaction using the insights of interactional analysis will be examined. The importance of deep personal security and investment for effective language learning will be emphasized. Stevick’s principles of the psychodynamics of the language classroom will be explored through references to contemporary and unconventional approaches to language teaching—i.e. Audiolingual, Communicative, Silent Way, Total Physical Response, Suggestopedia, Community Language Learning, Natural Approach, etc.

I will bring in guest lecturers to demonstrate the Silent Way and Community Language Learning, and I will demonstrate other methods—such as Grammar–Translation, Reading, Direct, Audio-lingual, Total Physical Response, and Suggestopedia—myself through “shock language” lessons in Modern Greek. We will also view videos to see other language-teaching methods, approaches, and techniques in action.

READINGS
Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, by Jack C. Richards and Theodore Rodgers
Teaching Language in context, Second Edition , by Alice C. Omaggio
Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, 2nd Edition, Marianne Celce-Murcia, ed.

REQUIREMENTS
Classroom activities will include lectures, reading assignments, class discussions and classroom demonstrations. There will be videotape viewings and guest lectures, both of which will help you witness and experience the various approaches and methods which we will be discussing. There will be eight written assignments and two examinations. Students will be required to teach a mini-lesson to their peers in ESL or in another language in which they consider themselves fluent. This peer teaching will be videotaped. Students are required to prepare assigned readings before the day on which the topic will be discussed.
 

Articles on Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

Recommended Books on Language Teaching
 

LING 269: Aspects of Bilingualism
Fall 2002
Mons/Weds, 2:40-3:55, ICC 204A

COURSE DESCRIPTION
This course will examine individual and societal bilingualism as a linguistic, anthropological, psychological, sociological, and educational phenomenon. The overall objective will be to develop an understanding of people who use two or more languages in their everyday life. Some of the basic questions we will address are: What is bilingualism/multilingualism?  How are two (or more) languages used on a community and/or societal level?  Why do people switch between two (or more) languages?  What are the differences/similarities in the various types of bilingual education programs? How do children acquire two languages?  Students will have the opportunity to investigate particular topics more in-depth via a comparative case study approach.

COURSE CONTENT
The course will be organized around the following themes:
1. Introduction and basic issues/definitions: What is bilingualism? Who is bilingual?
2. Social aspects of the bilingual community: language attitudes, language maintenance/shift, language and identity, etc.
3. Bilingual education-types of programs, effectiveness, second/foreign language education, etc.
4. The bilingual linguistic repertoire: code switching, code mixing, lexical borrowing, etc.
5. The bilingual individual: cognitive effects of bilingualism, bilingual acquisition, etc.

REQUIRED TEXTS
Cummins, J. (1996). Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society.
Ontario, CA: California Association for Bilingual Education.
Hakuta, K. (1986).  Mirror of language.  New York: Basic Books, Inc.
Hoffman, C. (1991). An introduction to bilingualism. New York: Longman.
 

LING 393:  English as an International Language

Spring Semester 2001
Tuesdays & Thursdays 11.40 am – 12.55 pm, ICC 106
Office Hours: Tuesdays & Thursdays 3:00 – 4:00 pm, and by appointment

TEXTBOOKS

Required:  The Alchemy of English
by Braj Kachru
University of Illinois Press, 1990

The Other Tongue: English across Cultures
by Braj Kachru
University of Illinois Press, 1992

English as a Global Language
by David Crystal
Cambridge University Press, 1997

Reading Packet (RP), provided in class
 

On Reserve  English as a World Language
(Lauinger Library) Bailey, R. & Gorlach, M.
Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1982

About This Syllabus:

Topics   The purpose of this course is to investigate the spread of English as an international language: its historical development, socio-cultural diversity and linguistic variation.  In addition to numerous readings on native and non-native varieties of English which can be found throughout the world (e.g. Indian English, Singaporean English, Chicano English, etc.), topics related to educational linguistics within a World Englishes background will also be addressed in order to better understand common pedagogical problems and concerns related to the English language teaching profession.

Reading
Assignments  There are assigned readings for most dates that we meet as a class.  You are expected to have done these readings by the date they are listed on the syllabus.  The readings build on one another and serve as a general background for my lectures and the written assignments.  Some of the assigned readings will also be used as the basis for your reaction papers.

Written
Assignments  Reflective Papers: On designated dates throughout the semester, students will be expected to hand in a 2-3 page reflective journal based on an assigned reading/question given to them.  The reflective paper is NOT meant to be a research paper and students are not expected to do any additional reading or library research.  Rather, the journal is an opportunity to reflect in depth on a particular reading/question.

Article Critique and Presentation:  Students will be expected to take responsibility for presenting at least one of the required articles and leading class discussion.  The presentation of the article should be more than just a summary of the article and include a critique of the article which should lend itself to thoughtful discussion with the class.  The student will also hand in a written critique of the same article.

Final Project: Students will be expected to engage in original research on a topic related to World Englishes.  Projects may include, but are not limited to:
1.   an analysis/comparison of some linguistic features (phonology, morpho-syntax, discourse) of a specific variety of English (especially if access to a speaker of that variety is available).
 2.   comparing Englishes of a given genre (such as newspapers, talk show, radio, news reports, etc.) from two or more varieties.
3.   the influence/impact of English on other languages and vice versa.
4.   the role of English in language education, language policy, language planning, etc.
5.   the impact of English on some socio-cultural/political aspect such as language and law, language and business, language and the media, etc.
6.   any topic approved by the instructor

Evaluation:
Reflective Papers  20%
Article Critique  20%
Final Project   50%
Attendance/Participation 10%
 

Topics and Reading Schedule

Week 1: Introduction to course, historical background and spread of WE
Read:  Crystal (1997) – chapters 1, 2
Kachru & Nelson (1996)
Gorlach (1988)

Week 2: Bilingualism/multilingualism and code-switching in WE communities
Read: Alchemy – chapter 4
Chen (1996)
Kamwangamalu (1996)
Myers-Scotton (1990)

Week 3: Language contact, language shift, language maintenance
Read: Alchemy – chapters 8, 9

Week 4: Selected linguistic features of World Englishes
Read: Alchemy – chapters 2, 3
Bailey & Gorlach (1982) p.353-41 – on reserve

Week 5: Selected linguistic features of World Englishes
Read: Bailey & Gorlach (1982) p. 251-280 – on reserve
Bailey & Gorlach (1982) p. 281-352 – on reserve

Week 6: Selected linguistic features of World Englishes
Read: Bokamba (1992)
Valentine (1991)
Holmes (1994)
Bamiro (1995)
Zhe Pei & Wen Chi (1987)

Week 7: English-based pidgins and creoles
Read: Lipski (1992)

Other US Englishes: AAVE, American Indian English, Chicano English, Puerto Rican English
Read:  Craig (1991)
Penfield (1989)

Week 8: The notion of norms and standards
Read: Alchemy – chapters 5-7
Pakir (1997)
Christie (1989)
 Gripta (1988)
Kachru (1992)

Week 9: Socio-cultural/political dimensions of WE
Read: Kachru (1986)
Nickerson (1998)
Frank (1988)
Ramirez-Gonzalez & Torres-Gonzalez (1996)
Al-Kahtany (1995)

Week 10: Socio-cultural/political dimensions of WE
Read: Bhatia  (1987)
Kubota (1998)
Pennycook  (1994)
Pennycook (1994)
Williams (1989)

Week 11: Language policy and planning, the future of WE
Read: Kaplan (1987)
Kibbee (1993)
Modiano (1996)

Week 12: Implications/applications for teaching English/WE
Read: Andreasson (1994)
Nelson (1995)
Baumgarder (1995)
Kachru (1992)

Week 13: Implications/applications for teaching English/WE
Read: Williams (1989)
Connor-Linton (1995)
Lowenberg (1992)

Week 14: Research Project Reports
 Readings

Introduction/Background
Crystal, D. (1997).  Why English? The historical context – chapter 2 from English as a Global  Language.  New York: Cambridge University Press.  p. 1-63.
Kachru, B & Nelson, C. (1996).  World Englishes.  In S. McKay & N. Hornberger (Eds.) Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press. p71-102.
Gorlach, M.  (1988).  English as a world language-the state of the art.  English World-Wide, 9, 1-32.

Bilingualism/multilingualism/code-switching
Myers-Scotton, C.  (1990).  Codeswitching with English: types of switching, types of communities.  World Englishes, 6, 33-48.
Chen, S.  (1996).  Code-switching as a verbal strategy among Chinese in a campus setting in Taiwan.  World Englishes, 15, 267-280.
Kamwangamalu, N.  (1996).  Sociolinguistic aspects of siSwati-English bilingualism. World Englishes, 15, 295-305.

Language contact, shift, maintenance

Linguistic features of WE
Bokamba, E.  (1992).  The africanization of English.  In B. Kachru (Ed.) The Other Tongue.  Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Holmes, J.  (1994).  New Zealand flappers: an analysis of T voicing in New Zealand English.  English World-Wide, 15, 195-224.
Valentine, T.  (1991).  Getting the message across: discourse markers in Indian English. World Englishes, 10, 325-334.
Zhe Pei, Z. & Wen Chi, F.  (1987).  The two faces of English in China: Englishization of Chinese and nativization of English.  World Englishes, 6, 111-125.
Bamiro, E.  (1995).  Syntactic variation in West African English.  World Englishes, 14, 189-204.

English-based pidgins/creoles
Lipski, J.  (1992).  Pidgin English usage in Equatorial Guinea.  English World-Wide, 13, 33-57.

Other US Englishes
Craig, B.  (1991).  American Indian English.  English World-Wide, 12, 25-62.
Penfield, J.  (1989).  Social and lingusitic parameters of prosody in Chicano English. In O. Garcia & R. Otheguy (Eds.) English across cultures, cultures across English.  New York: Mouton de Gruyter. (p. 387-402).

Norms and standards
Preisler, B.  (1995).  Standard English in the World.  Multilingua, 14, 341-362.
 Pakir, A.  (1997).  Standards and codification for World Englishes.  In L. Smith and M. Forman (Eds.) World Englishes 2000.  Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.
Christie, P.  (1989).  Questions of standards and intra-regional differences in Caribbean examinations.  In O. Garcia & R. Otheguy (Eds.) English across cultures, cultures across English.  New York: Mouton de Gruyter.  (p. 243-261)
Gripta, A.  (1988).  A standard for written Singapore English?  In J. Foley (Ed.) New Englishes: The Case of Singapore.  Singapore: University of Singapore Press.
Kachru, B.  (1992).  Models for non-native Englishes.  In B. Kachru (Ed.) The Other Tongue.  Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Socio-cultural/political Dimensions
Kachru, B.  (1986).  The power and politics of English.  World Englishes, 5, 121-140.
Frank, J.  (1988).  Miscommunication across cultures: the case of marketing in Indian English.  World Englishes, 7, 25-36.
Ramirez-Gonzalez, C. & Torres-Gonzalez, R.  (1996).  English under US sovereignty: Ninety-five years of change of the status of English in Puerto Rico.  In J. Fishman, A. Conrad & A. Rubal-Lopez (Eds.) Post-Imperial English: Status change in foremer British and American Colonies, 1940-1990.  New York: Mouton de Gruyter. (p. 173-204).
Al-Kahtany, A.  (1995).  Dialectal ethnographic ‘cleansing’: ESL students’ attitudes towards three varieties of English.  Language and Communication, 15, 165-180.
Nickerson, C.  (1998).  Corporate culture and the use of written English within British subsidiaries in the Netherlands.  English for Specific Purposes, 17, 281-294.
Bhatia, T.  (1987).  English in advertising: multiple mixing and media.  World Englishes, 6, 33-48.
Kubota, R.  (1998).  Ideologies of English in Japan.  World Englishes, 17, 295-306.
Pennycook, A.  (1994).  The Worldliness of English in Malaysia.  The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language. p183-221.
Pennycook, A.  (1994).  The Worldliness of English in Singapore.  The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language. p 222-258.
Williams, R. (1989).  The (mis)identification of regional and national accents of English: pragmatics, cognitive and social aspects.  In O. Garcia & R. Otheguy (Eds.) English across cultures, cultures across English.  New York: Mouton de Gruyter.  p. 57-81.

Language policy/planning and the future of WE
Kaplan, R.  (1987).  English in the language policy of the Pacific Rim.  World Englishes, 6, 137-148.
Kibbee, D.  (1993).  World French takes on World English: Competing visions of national and international languages.  World Englishes, 12, 209-221.
Modiano, M.  (1996).  The Americanization of Euro-English.  World Englishes, 15, 207-215.

Language Teaching and WE
 Lowenberg, P.  (1992).  Testing English as a world language: Issues in assessing non-native proficiency.  In B. Kachru (Ed.) The Other Tongue.  Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Connor-Linton, J. (1995).  Cross-cultural comparison of writing standards: America ESL and Japanese EFL.  World Englishes, 14, 99-115.
Baumgarder, R. (1995).  Pakistani English: acceptability and the norm. World Englishes, 14, 261-271.
Nelson, C.  (1995).  Intelligibility and world Englishes in the classroom. World Englishes, 14, 273-279.
Andreasson, A.  (1994).  Norm as a pedagogical paradigm. World Englishes, 13, 395-409.
Williams, J.  (1989).  Language acquisition, language contact, and nativized varieties of English.  RELC Journal, 20, 39-67.
Kachru, B.  (1992).  Teaching World Englishes.  In B. Kachru (Ed.) The Other Tongue.  Chicago: University of Illinois Press. (p. 355-365).
 

LING 451: Bilingualism

Spring Semester 2002
Mondays 4:15-6:45 p.m., ICC 204A

COURSE DESCRIPTION
This course will examine individual and societal bilingualism as a linguistic, anthropological, psychological, sociological, and educational phenomenon. The overall objective will be to develop an understanding of people who use two or more languages in their everyday life. Some of the basic questions we will address are: What is bilingualism/multilingualism?  How are two (or more) languages used on a community and/or societal level?  Why do people switch between two (or more) languages?  What are the differences/similarities in the various types of bilingual education programs? How do children acquire two languages?  Students will have the opportunity to investigate particular topics more in-depth via a comparative case study approach.  Students will read reading assignments from the textbooks and discuss them as a group.  Prior to conducting a case study and research, students will be asked to present an abstract describing what they intend to do.

COURSE CONTENT
The course will be organized around the following themes:
1. Introduction and basic issues/definitions: What is bilingualism? Who is bilingual?
2. Social aspects of the bilingual community: language attitudes, language maintenance/shift, language and identity, etc.
3. Bilingual education-types of programs, effectiveness, second/foreign language education, etc.
4. The bilingual linguistic repertoire: code switching, code mixing, lexical borrowing, etc.
5. The bilingual individual: cognitive effects of bilingualism, bilingual acquisition, etc.

REQUIRED TEXTBOOKS
Baker, C. (2001).  Foundation of bilingual education and bilingualism.  Third Edition.  Bristrol, PA: Multilingual Matters.
Cummins, J. (1996). Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society. Ontario, CA: California Association for Bilingual Education.
 

LING 752:   Seminar on Methodology of Language Teaching: Communicative Language Teaching

Fall Semester 2000
Thursdays 4:15 - 6:30 pm,  ICC 217-A
Office Hours: Tuesdays & Thursdays 3:00 – 4:00 pm, and by appointment
 

COURSE REQUIREMENTS
1) Class attendance and participation in discussion and activities;
2) Several reaction papers: 15-minute oral reports on articles from Savignon and Berns, with 3-4 page written summary that is turned in;
3) Completion of written class assignments;
4) Mid-semester examination;
5) Written assignment: A Critical Comparison of Texts; and
6) Final project, done individually or in pairs

This course is in a lecture and discussion format. In order to benefit most from this seminar, each student should come to class prepared to discuss the assigned readings. The recommended way of doing this is to read the assignment several days in advance, attempt to summarize it for yourself, and then, the night before the class discussion, reread it, jotting down any questions that you may have. The questions at the end of each chapter lend themselves to small group discussions. Asking these questions in class makes the discussion more stimulating than a straight lecture. The “Pause to Consider” boxes in CC are also useful in giving focus to the discussion. The idea is to have a stimulating give-and-take. Failure to prepare for the class, therefore, will impede dialogue; in the same way , failure to attend class limits your contribution to class discussions. We will divide class members into groups of 3, 4, or 5 (depending on the size of the class) to compare answers to the Questions and the “Pauses to Consider.” The purpose of this is to involve all students, especially those who are reluctant to speak in front of the whole class. Each group will be asked to select a reporter to report back to the full group or, alternatively, send an email report to me (or the full group). It is hoped that students will enjoy learning about one another’s contexts of teaching and learning. We will use email to exchange news, start discussions, and send advance abstracts of in-class presentations. The questions at the end of each chapter will be carefully selected for the purpose of provoking discussion. Similarly, it is expected that the Mini-Research and Portfolio activities will stimulate final student projects, and will allow students to choose according to their own interests. These activities will be used as viable alternatives to tests or quizzes and serve to individualize focus. Students will be encouraged to work in teams of two, or in groups, to provide a community-language-learning atmosphere and experience.
In addition to regular lectures and CR discussions, carefully selected guest lectures will be invited, and we will view and discuss selected videos from the series Teacher Training Through Video (TTTV). Advance preparation is also recommended for these.

Required Textbooks:
Breaking Tradition: an Exploration of the Historical Relationship Between Theory and Practice, by Diane Musumeci

Communicative Competence: Theory and Classroom Practice, 2nd Ed., by Sandra Savignon

Initiatives in Communicative Language Teaching I and  II, Sandra J. Savignon and Margie S. Berns (eds.)
 

GREE-011 Intensive First-Level Modern Greek I
Fall Semester 2000
Mon/Tues/Wed/Thurs/Fri 10:10 - 11:10 am, ICC 112
Office Hours: Tuesdays & Thursdays 3:00 – 4:00 pm, and by appointment
 
 

GREE-012 Intensive First-Level Modern Greek II
Spring Semester 2001
Mon/Tues/Wed/Thurs/Fri 10:10 - 11:10 am, ICC 112
Office Hours: Tuesdays & Thursdays 3:00 – 4:00 pm, and by appointment